Hunting Clione limacina, copyright Alexander Semenov.

Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Gymnosomata are a group of shell-less, pelagic marine gastropods in which the foot has been modified into a pair of large parapodia used for swimming. The lateral position of the parapodia well behind the head has lead to their vernacular name of 'sea angels'.

    |--Hydromyloidea [Gymnoptera, Laginiopsina] BR05
    |    |--Laginiopsis Pruvot-Fol 1922 [Laginiopsidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*L. triloba Pruvot-Fol 1922 BR17
    |    `--Hydromyles Gistel 1848 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |         |--*H. hemispherica (Rang 1827) [=*Euribia hemispherica] BR17
    |         |--*Cymodocea’ diaphana d’Orbigny 1836 [=*Pterocymodocea diaphana] BR17
    |         `--*Psyche’ globulosa Rang 1825 [=*Anopsia globulosa, *Halopsyche globulosa] BR17
    `--Clionoidea [Cliacea, Deutocephala] BR05
         |--Cliopsis Troschel 1854 [=Clionopsis (l. c.); Clionopsidae, Cliopsidae] BR05
         |    `--*C. krohnii Troschel 1854 BR17
         |--Notobranchaeidae BR05
         |    |--Notobranchaea Pelseneer 1886 [Notobranchaeinae] BR05
         |    |    `--*N. macdonaldi Pelseneer 1886 BR17
         |    `--Prionoglossa Tesch 1950 [Prionoglossinae] BR05
         |         `--*P. tetrabranchiata (Bonnevie 1913) [=Notobranchaea tetrabranchiata] BR17
         |--Pneumodermatidae [Micropterygia, Pneumodermonidae, Pneumonodermatidae, Pneumonodermoidae] BR05
         |    |--Crucibranchaea Pruvot-Fol 1942 [Crucibranchaeidae, Crucibranchaeinae] BR05
         |    |    `--*C. macrochira (Meisenheimer 1905) [=Pneumodermopsis macrochira] BR17
         |    |--Spongiobranchaea d’Orbigny 1840 P61
         |    |    `--*S. australis d’Orbigny 1840 P61
         |    `--Pneumoderma de Roissy 1805 [=Pneumodermon, Pneumonoderma, Pneumonodermon; Pneumodermites] BR05
         |         |--*P. peronii Cuvier 1816 BR17
         |         |--P. atlantica CR13
         |         |--P. pacifica Dall 1871 O27
         |         `--P. pygmaeum (Tesch 1903) H01
         `--Clionidae [Clionidia] BR05
              |--Thliptodontinae [Thliptodonidae, Thliptodontidae] BR05
              |    |--Cephalobrachia Bonnevie 1913 BR05, BR17 [Cephalobrachiinae, Cephalobrachinae]
              |    |    `--*C. macrochaeta Bonnevie 1913 BR17
              |    `--Thliptodon Boas 1886 [incl. Pteroceanis Meisenheimer 1902; Pteroceanidae] BR05
              |         |--*T. gegenbauri Boas 1886 BR17
              |         `--*Pteroceanis’ diaphana Meisenheimer 1902 BR17
              `--Clioninae [Cliodinae] BR05
                   |--Fowlerina Pelseneer 1906 [Fowlerinae, Fowlerininae] BR05
                   |    `--*F. zetesios Pelseneer 1906 BR17
                   `--Clione Pallas 1774 BR05
                        |--*C. borealis Pallas 1774 BR17
                        |--C. elegantissima Dall 1871 O27
                        `--C. limacina Phipps 1773 O27

Hydromyles Gistel 1848 BR05 [=Euribia Rang 1827 non Meigen 1800 BR05; incl. Anopsia Gistel 1848 BR05, Cymodocea d’Orbigny 1834 nec Rafinesque 1814 nec Lamouroux 1816 nec Leach 1818 BR05, Halopsyche Keferstein 1862 non de Saussure 1857 BR05, Psyche Rang 1825 (preoc.) BR17, Pterocymodocea Keferstein 1862 BR05; Anopsidae, Anopsiidae, Cymodoceadae, Cymodoceidae, Euribiacea, Euribiidae, Eurybiidae, Halopsychidae, Hydromylidae, Pterocymodoceidae, Sclerodermata]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Last updated: 31 August 2021.

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