Hunting Clione limacina, copyright Alexander Semenov.

Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.

The Gymnosomata, sea angels, are a group of shell-less, pelagic marine gastropods in which the foot has been modified into a pair of large parapodia used for swimming.

    |--Hydromyloidea [Gymnoptera] BR05
    |    |--Laginiopsis Pruvot-Fol 1922 [Laginiopsidae] BR05
    |    `--Hydromylidae [Anopsiidae, Cymodoceidae, Euribiacea, Euribiidae, Halopsychidae, Pterocymodoceidae] BR05
    |         |--Hydromyles Gistel 1848 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |         `--‘Euribia’ Rang 1827 non Meigen 1800 BR05
    `--Clionoidea [Cliacea] BR05
         |--Cliopsis Troschel 1854 [=Clionopsis (l. c.); Clionopsidae, Cliopsidae] BR05
         |--Notobranchaeidae BR05
         |    |--Notobranchaea Pelseneer 1886 [Notobranchaeinae] BR05
         |    `--Prionoglossa Tesch 1950 [Prionoglossinae] BR05
         |--Pneumodermatidae [Pneumodermonidae, Pneumonodermatidae, Pneumonodermoidae] BR05
         |    |--Crucibranchaea Pruvot-Fol 1942 [Crucibranchaeidae] BR05
         |    `--Pneumoderma de Roissy 1805 [=Pneumodermon, Pneumonoderma, Pneumonodermon; Pneumodermites] BR05
         |         |--*P. peronii O27
         |         |--P. pacifica Dall 1871 O27
         |         `--P. pygmaeum (Tesch 1903) H01
         `--Clionidae [Clionidia] BR05
              |--Thliptodontinae [Thliptodonidae, Thliptodontidae] BR05
              |    |--Thliptodon Boas 1886 [incl. Pteroceanis Meisenheimer 1902; Pteroceanidae] BR05
              |    `--Cephalobrachia Bonnevie 1912 [Cephalobrachiinae, Cephalobrachinae] BR05
              `--Clioninae [Cliodinae] BR05
                   |--Fowlerina Pelseneer 1906 [Fowlerinae, Fowlerininae] BR05
                   `--Clione Pallas 1774 BR05
                        |--*C. borealis O27
                        |--C. elegantissima Dall 1871 O27
                        `--C. limacina Phipps 1773 O27

Hydromyles Gistel 1848 [incl. Anopsia Gistel 1848, ‘Cymodocea’ d’Orbigny 1834 nec Rafinesque 1814 nec Lamouroux 1816 nec Leach 1818, Pterocymodocea Keferstein 1862, Halopsyche Keferstein 1862 non de Saussure 1857] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: A case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

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