Acteocina inculta, from here.

Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.
Contains: Diaphanidae, Bulla, Haminoeidae, Retusidae, Philinidae, Cylichna.

The Cephalaspidea are a group of marine gastropods variously known as the bubble snails or headshield slugs, depending on the degree to which the shell is enclosed by the mantle. Members of the group are characterised by a broad, flattened head shield bearing a central pair of light-sensitive organs, while the foot may bear lateral parapodia.

<==Cephalaspidea [Bullomorpha]
    |--Diaphanoidea [Diaphanacea] BR05
    |    |--Notodiaphana Thiele 1917 [Notodiaphanidae] BR05
    |    `--Diaphanidae BR05
    |--Bullidae [Bullariidae, Bullinacea, Bullinae, Bulloidea, Vesicidae] BR05
    |    |--Bullinula lineata Gray 1825 (see below for synonymy) F27a
    |    `--Bulla BR05
    |--Haminoeoidea BR05
    |    |--Haminoeidae BR05
    |    |--Bullacta Bergh 1901 [Bullactidae, Bullactinae, Bullactininae] BR05
    |    |    `--B. exarata ZLK11
    |    `--Smaragdinellidae [Cryptophthalmidae, Cryptophthalminae, Ophthalmidae] BR05
    |         |--Smaragdinella Adams 1848 [Smaragdinellinae] BR05
    |         |--‘Cryptophthalmus’ Ehrenberg 1828 non Rafinesque 1814 BR05
    |         `--Lathophthalmus Pruvot-Fol 1932 [Lathophthalminae] BR05
    |--Runcinoidea BR05
    |    |--Ilbia Burn 1963 [Ilbiidae, Ilbiinae] BR05
    |    `--Runcinidae [Dermobranchiata, Peltidae] BR05
    |         |--Pelta Quatrefages 1844 BR05
    |         |--Runcina Forbes 1851 [Runcininae] BR05
    |         |--Chalidis BR05
    |         |--Ildica Bergh 1889 [Ildicidae] BR05
    |         |--Lapinura Marcus & Marcus 1970 [Lapinuridae] BR05
    |         `--Runcinella Odhner 1924 F27a
    |              `--*R. zelandica Odhner 1924 F27a
    `--Philinoidea [Philinacea] BR05
         |--Retusidae BR05
         |--Philinidae BR05
         |--Pluscula Marcus 1953 [Plusculidae, Plusculinae] BR05
         |    `--P. cuica Marcus 1953 APS-P86
         |--Gastropteron Kosse 1813 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |    |--*G. rubrum O27
         |    |--G. cinereum Dall 1925 [=G. pacificum var. cinereum] O27
         |    `--G. pacificum Bergh 1893 O27
         |--Philinoglossidae [Philinoglossacea, Philinoglossinae, Philinoglossoidea] BR05
         |    |--Sapha Marcus 1959 APS-P86
         |    |    `--S. amicorum Marcus 1959 APS-P86
         |    |--Abavopsis Salvini-Plawen 1973 APS-P86
         |    |    `--A. latosoleata Salvini-Plawen 1973 APS-P86
         |    `--Philinoglossa Hertling 1932 BR05
         |         |--P. helgolandica Hertling 1932 APS-P86
         |         |--P. marcusi Challis 1969 APS-P86
         |         |--P. praelongata Salvini-Plawen 1973 APS-P86
         |         `--P. remanei Marcus & Marcus 1958 APS-P86
         |--Aglajidae BR05
         |    |--Doridium Meckel 1809 [Doridiidae, Doridiina, Doridiinae] BR05
         |    |--Chelidonura Adams 1850 [Chelidonuridae] BR05
         |    |    `--C. amoena Bergh 1905 BW09
         |    |--Navanax Pilsbry 1895 O27
         |    |    `--*N. inermis Cooper 1862 O27
         |    |--Philinopsis BW09
         |    |    |--P. pilsbryi (Eliot 1900) BW09
         |    |    |--P. reticulata (Eliot 1903) BW09
         |    |    `--P. taronga [incl. Chelidonura aureopunctula] HS01
         |    `--Aglaja Renier 1807 BR05
         |         |--*A. membranacea [=Doridium membranaceum] O27
         |         |--A. adellae Dall 1894 O27
         |         |--A. diomedia Bergh 1894 O27
         |         |--A. marmorata (Smith 1884) [=Doridium marmoratum] H09
         |         |--A. ocelligera (Bergh 1894) [=Doridium ocelligerum] O27
         |         `--A. purpurea Bergh 1894 O27
         `--Cylichnidae [Cylichnacea] BR05
              |--Cylichna BR05
              |--Scaphander Montfort 1810 [Scaphandridae, Scaphandroidea] BR05
              |    |--*S. lignarius [=Bulla lignaria] O27
              |    |--S. multistriatus Brazier 1877 H09
              |    `--S. willetti Dall 1919 O27
              |--Tornatina Adams 1850 [Tornatinidae] BR05
              |    |--T. acrobeles (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus acrobeles] H09
              |    |--T. biplex (Adams 1850) [=Bulla biplex] H09
              |    |--T. gracilis Adams 1850 H09
              |    |--T. leptekes (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus leptekes] H09
              |    `--T. planospira (Adams 1850) [=Bulla planospira] H09
              `--Acteocina Gray 1847 [Acteocinidae] BR05
                   |--‘Retusa’ gaimardi Finlay 1927 F27b (see below for synonymy)
                   |--A. carinata Carpenter 1857 O27
                   |--A. culcitella Gould 1852 O27
                   |    |--A. c. culcitella S59
                   |    `--A. c. intermedia S59
                   |--A. eximia (Baird 1863) [=Bullina (Tornatina) eximia] O27
                   |--A. inculta Gould 1856 O27
                   |--A. infrequens (Adams 1852) [=Bulla (Tornatina) infrequens] O27
                   |--A. magdalenensis Dall 1919 O27
                   |--A. oldroydi Dall 1925 O27
                   |--A. planata Carpenter 1865 O27
                   `--A. smirna Dall 1919 O27

Bullinula lineata Gray 1825 [incl. Bullina scabra (Gmelin 1791) (preoc.), Voluta ziczac Muhlfeldt 1878 non Schroeter 1804] F27a

Gastropteron Kosse 1813 [=Gasteropteron (l. c.), Gastropterum Agassiz 1847; Gasteropteridae, Gastropteridae, Gastropterinae, Gastropteroidae] BR05

‘Retusa’ gaimardi Finlay 1927 F27b [=Bulla voluta Quoy & Gaimard 1833 non Gmelin 1791 F27b, *Acteocina voluta O27, Tornatina voluta O27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APS-P86] Arnaud, P. M., C. Poizat & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Marine-interstitial Gastropoda (including one freshwater interstitial species).  In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 153–176. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[S59] Stohler, R. 1959. Range extensions of some west N. A. marines. Nautilus 72 (4): 127–130.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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