Clio pyramidata, copyright R. W. Gilmer and G. R. Harbison.

Belongs within: Thecosomata.

The Cavoliniidae are a group of sea butterflies with a straight, uncoiled shell present at maturity. The shell is conical in Styliola and Hyalocyclis but dorsoventrally depressed in Cuvierina and Cavoliniinae. Members of the Cavoliniinae also bear lateral ridges on the shell (Corse et al. 2013).

<==Cavoliniidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Styliola Gray 1847 CR13, BR05
    |    |--*S. recta P61
    |    |--S. falcata Gould 1852 O27
    |    `--S. subula (Quoy & Gaimard 1827) P61 [=S. sublata (l. c.) F27]
    `--+--Hyalocylis CR13
       |    |--H. haitensis CR13
       |    `--H. striata CR13
       `--+--Cuvierina Boas 1886 CR13, BR05 [=Cuvieria Rang 1827 non Lesueur & Petit 1807 BR05; Cuvierininae]
          |    |--*C. columnella (Rang 1827) [=*Cuvieria columnella] BR17
          |    |--C. spoeli CR13
          |    `--C. urceolaris F27
          `--Cavoliniinae CR13
               |  i. s.: Diacrolinia Rang 1827 CR13
               |         Gamopleura CR13
               |--+--Diacavolinia longirostris CR13
               |  `--Cavolinia Abildgaard 1791 CR13, BR05 [incl. Hyalaea Lamarck 1799 BR05; Dactyliobranchia]
               |       |  i. s.: *C. natans Abildgaard 1791 BR17
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ longirostris (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea longirostris] H09
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ occidentalis Dall 1908 O27
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ quadridentata (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea quadridentata] H09
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ strangulata Hedley 1907 P61
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ telemus (Linnaeus 1758) P61
               |       |--C. gibbosa Rang 1836 CR13, P61 [=Hyalaea gibbosa H09]
               |       |--C. globulosa CR13
               |       |--C. inflexa (Lesueur 1813) CR13, P61 [=Hyalaea inflexa H09]
               |       |--C. labiata CR13
               |       |--C. plana CR13
               |       |--+--C. flava CR13
               |       |  `--C. gibboides CR13
               |       `--+--C. tridentata (Forskål 1775) CR13, BR17 [=Anomia tridentata P61, *Hyalaea tridentata BR17]
               |          `--C. uncinata (Rang 1836) CR13, P61 [=Hyalaea uncinata H09]
               `--+--Diacria Gray 1842 CR13, P61
                  |    |  i. s.: D. major CR13
                  |    |--D. quadridentata CR13
                  |    |    |--D. q. quadridentata CR13
                  |    |    `--D. q. dana CR13
                  |    `--+--*D. trispinosa (Lesueur 1821) P61 [=Hyalaea trispinosa P61, Cavolina trispinosa F27]
                  |       |--D. gracilis CR13
                  |       `--D. rampali CR13
                  `--Clio Linnaeus 1767 CR13, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                       |  i. s.: C. annulata (Tate 1887) F27
                       |         C. antarctica C68
                       |         C. blinkae CR13
                       |         C. borealis CS77
                       |         C. compressa Souleyet 1852 P61
                       |         C. exacuta Gould 1852 O27
                       |         C. infundibulum N79 [=Cleodora infundibulum J64]
                       |         C. occidentalis Dall 1871 O27
                       |         C. rangiana F27
                       |         C. striata (Rang. 1828) [=Creseis striata] H09
                       |         C. subula (Quoy & Gaimard 1827) [=Cleodora subula] H09
                       |         C. sulcata (Pfeiffer 1879) P61
                       |         C. urenuiensis Suter 1917 F27
                       |         C. vasconiensis CR13
                       |--*C. pyramidata Linnaeus 1767 BR17, CR13, BR17 [=*Cleodora pyramidata BR17]
                       |--C. cuspidata CR13
                       `--+--C. convexa CR13
                          `--+--C. polita CR13
                             `--+--C. chaptali CR13
                                `--C. recurva CR13

Cavoliniidae incertae sedis:
  Cliodita caduceus Q. & G. 1825 F27
  Euchilotheca Fisher 1882 CR13
    `--E. ganensis Curry 1981 TTE93
  Camptoceratops priscus (Godwin-Austen 1882) TTE93
  Lornia Marwick 1926 F27
    `--*L. limata Marwick 1926 F27
  Triptera Quoy & Gaimard 1825 BR17
    `--*T. rosea Quoy & Gaimard 1825 BR17
  Vaginella Daudin 1800 CR13
    |--*V. depressa Daudin 1800 D00
    |--V. aucklandica Clarke 1903 F27
    |--V. torpedo Marshall 1918 F27
    `--V. urceolaris Moerch 1850 P61
  Bucanoides CR13
  Tibiella CR13
  Cheilocuspidata Hodgkinson 1992 CR13
  Loxobidens Hodgkinson 1992 CR13

Nomen nudum: Clio tatei Suter 1915 F27

Cavoliniidae [Cavolinidae, Cavoliniida, Cavoliniiformes, Cuvierinidae, Cuvieridae, Cuvieriidae, Hyalaeidae, Hyalinea, Tripteridae]

Clio Linnaeus 1767 CR13, BR05 [=Cleodora Péron & Lesueur 1810 BR05; Cleodoridae, Cliidae, Clioidae, Clioinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C68] Chen, C. 1968. Zoogeography of thecosomatous pteropods in the west Antarctic Ocean. Nautilus 81 (3): 94–101.

[CR13] Corse, E., J. Rampal, C. Cuoc, N. Pech, Y. Perez & A. Gilles. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 (holoplanktonic Opisthobranchia) using morphological and molecular data. PLoS One 8 (4): e59439.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D00] Daudin, C. 1800. Nouveau genre de ver à tube calcaire, voisin des serpules et des dentales. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (43): 145.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 18 December 2021.

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