Limacina helicina, copyright Alexander Semenov.

Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.
Contains: Cavoliniidae.

The Thecosomata, sea butterflies, are a group of pelagic marine gastropods that have the foot modified into a pair of wing-like parapodia used in swimming. Most Thecosomata retain a calcareous shell, though the shell is demineralised or lost in some subgroups.

<==Thecosomata [Campyloconques]
    |  i. s.: Tiedemannia BR05
    |--Cymbulioidea [Cymbuliacea, Pseudothecosomata] BR05
    |    |--Desmopterus Chun 1889 [Desmopteridae] BR05
    |    |    `--D. pacificus Essenberg 1919 O27
    |    |--Peraclidae [Peraclacea, Peraclididae] BR05
    |    |    |--Procymbulia Meisenheimer 1905 [Procymbuliidae] BR05
    |    |    `--Peracle Forbes 1844 BR05
    |    |         `--P. reticulata B26
    |    `--Cymbuliidae [Cymbuliadae] BR05
    |         |--Gleba Forskal 1776 [Glebinae] BR05
    |         |--Cymbulia PĂ©ron & Lesueur 1810 [Cymbuliinae] BR05
    |         |    `--C. parvidentata Pelseneer 1888 F27
    |         `--Corolla Dall 1871 O27
    |              |--*C. spectabilis Dall 1871 O27
    |              `--C. calceola B26
    `--Cavolinioidea [Euthecosomata] BR05
         |--Cavoliniidae BR05
         |--Sphaerocina Jung 1971 [Sphaerocinidae] BR05
         `--Limacinidae [Limacinacea] BR05
              |--Spirialis Eydoux & Souleyet 1840 [Spirialidae] BR05
              |--Spiratella Blainville 1817 [Spiratellacea, Spiratellidae] BR05
              |    |--*S. antarctica O27
              |    |--S. australis (Eyd. & Soul 1840) F27
              |    `--S. pacifica Dall 1871 O27
              `--Limacina Bosc 1817 BR05
                   |--L. bulimoides (d’Orbigny 1836) [=Atlanta bulimoides] H09
                   |--L. helicina B26
                   |--L. leseuri (d’Orbigny 1836) [=Atlanta leseuri] H09
                   |--L. rangii B26
                   `--L. retroversa [incl. L. balea] B26

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

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