Philine scabra, copyright Daniel L. Geiger.

Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Philinidae are a group of headshield slugs with a delicate internal shell and a dorsal aspect divided between the four regions of head, visceral mass and lateral parapodial lobes. They commonly live infaunally in fine sediments; a smaller number of species live epifaunally.

Philinidae BR05
    |--Megistostoma gabbianum (Stoliczka 1868) TTE93
    |--Bullaea Lamarck 1801 [=Bullea (l. c.), Bullinia Rafinesque 1815; Bullaeana, Bullaeidae, Bullinitia] BR05
    |    |--*B. planciana Lamarck 1801 BR17
    |    |--B. ampulla [=Akera (Bullaea) ampulla] G20
    |    `--B. guamensis Quoy & Gaimard 1825 [incl. Bulla undata, Bullina undata] BR17
    `--Philine Ascanius 1772 BR05
         |--*P. quadripartita Ascanius 1772 BR17
         |--P. angasi Crosse & Fischer 1865 P61 [=Bullaea angasi H09]
         |--P. angulata N79
         |--P. aperta P61 [=Akera (Bullaea) aperta G20, BR05]
         |--P. auriformis Suter 1909 P61
         |--P. bakeri Dall 1919 O27
         |--P. catena (Montagu 1803) APS-P86
         |--P. constricta Murdoch & Suter 1906 P61
         |--P. denticulata (Adams 1800) APS-P86
         |--P. exigua Challis 1969 APS-P86
         |--P. finmarchica O27
         |--P. flexuosa N79
         |--P. gibba M62
         |--P. lima N79
         |--P. nitida N79
         |--P. polaris Aurivillius 1885 O27
         |--P. powelli PG98
         |--P. pruinosa N79
         |--P. punctata N79
         |--P. quadrata APS-P86
         |--P. scabra APS-P86
         |--P. scalpta L10
         |--P. schroeteri (Philippi 1844) [=Bullaea schroeteri] H09
         |--P. sinuata Stimpson 1850 APS-P86
         `--P. umbilicata Murdoch & Suter 1906 P61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APS-P86] Arnaud, P. M., Cl. Poizat & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Marine-interstitial Gastropoda (including one freshwater interstitial species). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 153–176. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L10] Lebedev, E. B. 2010. Diversity of soft-bottom mollusks in the Far Eastern Marine Reserve (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 169–173. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 1 September 2021.

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