Dentalium elephantium, from here.

Belongs within: Scaphopoda.

Dentalium is a cosmopolitan genus of tusk shells known from the Middle Triassic to the present day. In members of the type subgenus, the shell is prismatic or strongly ribbed, with a polygonal cross-section toward the apex. The subgenus Antalis is less strongly ribbed than Dentalium sensu stricto, without a polygonal cross-section and often with a V-shaped notch on or near the convex side of the apex. Fissidentalium species are large and solid with many longitudinal ribs and often with a long slit at the apex (Ludbrook 1960).

Characters (from Ludbrook 1960): Shell curved and tapering, longitudinally sculptured, smooth or annulated. Embryonic whorls minute, fragile, lost at an early growth stage. Apex commonly modified by slit or notch due to absorption. Anterior aperture circular or oblique, in many forms modified by longitudinal ribbing.

<==Dentalium Linnaeus 1758 DK08
    |--D. (Dentalium) S98 [incl. Paradentalium Cotton & Godfrey 1933 L60]
    |    |--*D. (D.) elephantium Linnaeus 1758 S98 [incl. D. rectum D26, D. recurvum D26]
    |    |--D. (D.) gouldii E52
    |    |    |--D. g. gouldii E52
    |    |    `--D. g. portoricense Henderson 1920 E52
    |    `--D. (D.) tiwhana Dell 1953 P61
    |--D. (Antalis Adams & Adams 1854) L60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--D. (*A.) entalis Linnaeus 1758 L60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--D. (A.) bartletti Henderson 1920 [=D. (Dentale) bartletti] E52
    |    |--D. (A.) ceratum Dall 1881 [=D. (Dentale) ceratum; incl. D. ceratum tenax] E52
    |    |--D. (A.) diarrhox Watson 1879 P61
    |    |--D. (A.) glaucarena Dell 1953 P61
    |    |--D. (A.) nanum Hutton 1873 [incl. D. huttoni Kirk 1880, D. marwicki Mestayer 1926] P61
    |    |--D. (A.) pilsbryi GD00, GO06
    |    |--D. (A.) suteri Emerson 1954 [incl. D. arenarium Suter 1907] P61
    |    `--D. (A.) vulgare Da Costa 1778 KC11, E52 [=Antalis vulgaris KC11]
    |--D. (Bathoxiphus Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    |--D. (*B.) ensiculus Jeffreys 1877 L60
    |    `--‘Bathoxiphus’ colmani (Palmer 1974) MG-H11
    |--D. (Coccodentalium Sacco 1896) L60
    |    |--D. (*C.) radula Schröter 1784 L60
    |    `--D. (C.) carduus Dall 1889 E52
    |--D. (Compressidens Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    |--D. (*C.) pressum Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 L60
    |    `--D. (C.) ophiodon Dall 1881 E52
    |--D. (Fissidentalium Fischer 1885) [incl. Schizodentalium Sowerby 1894] L60
    |    |--D. (*F.) ergasticum Fischer 1885 L60
    |    |--D. (F.) mawsoni Ludbrook 1956 DK08
    |    |--‘Fissidentalium’ otatumei AJH07
    |    |--‘Fissidentalium’ shirleyae Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
    |    `--‘Fissidentalium’ zelandicum (Sowerby 1860) P61
    |--D. (Episiphon Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    |--D. (*E.) sowerbyi Guilding 1834 L60
    |    |--D. (E.) johnsoni Emerson 1952 E52
    |    `--D. (E.) macilentum Pilsbry 1911 E52
    |--D. (Graptacme Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    |--D. (*G.) eboreum Conrad 1846 L60 [=Graptacme eborea WT06]
    |    `--D. (G.) sectum Deshayes 1826 PP78
    |--D. (Heteroschismoides Ludbrook 1960) [=Heteroschisma Simroth 1895 non Wachsmuth 1883] L60
    |    `--D. (*H.) subterfissum Jeffreys 1877) [=*Heteroschisma subterfissum] L60
    |--D. (Lobantale Cossmann 1888) L60
    |    `--D. (*L.) duplex Defrance 1819 L60
    `--D. (Tesseracme Pilsbry & Sharp 1898) L60
         |--D. (*T.) quadrapicale Sowerby 1860 L60
         `--D. (T.) tesseragonum Sowerby 1832 PP78

Dentalium incertae sedis:
  D. abbreviatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. acuminatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. acuticosta Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. aequatorium O27
  D. agassizii Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 O27
  D. annulosum Brazier 1877 H09
  D. aprinum [incl. D. striatulum] D26
  D. arcuatum D26
  D. batheri Finlay 1927 [=D. huttoni Bather 1905 non Kirk 1880] F27b
  D. bicarinatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. bisexangulatum Sowerby 1860 H09
  D. bouei Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. brevifissum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. candidum [incl. D. solidum Verrill 1884 non Hutton 1873] F27b
  D. canna White 1874 W77
  D. cheverti Sharp & Pilsbry 1897 H09
  D. clathratum Martens 1881 H09
  D. clava D26
  D. coarctatum D26
  D. collinsae Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
  D. compressum d’Orbigny 1850 F27b
  D. ‘compressum’ Watson 1879 non d’Orbigny 1850 F27b
  D. conicum H86a
  D. conspicuum PR79
  D. crassum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. dalli Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 O27
  D. dentalis Linnaeus 1758 L58 [incl. D. attenuatum D26]
  D. dispar Sowerby 1860 H09
  D. disparile G79
  D. dufresnii Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. duodecimcostatum Brazier 1877 H09
  D. eburneum D26
  D. fisheri Stearns in Pilsbry 1897 O27
  D. fissura D26
  D. fossile [incl. D. costatum] D26
  D. giganteum H86a
  D. grande Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. hexagonum Gould 1859 MG-H11
  D. inaequicostatum GO06
  D. inversum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. javanum Sowerby 1860 H09
  D. lacteum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. laeve Turton 1819 F27b
  D. ‘laevis’ Schlotheim 1820 non D. laeve Turton 1819 F27b
  D. lessoni Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. liratum C64
  D. longitrorsum Reeve 1842 H09
  D. majus H86a
  D. mantelli H86b [incl. D. irregulare H86a, Entalis texturatus H86b]
  D. minutum Linnaeus 1758 L58
  D. multistriatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. nebulosum D26
  D. neohexagonum Sharp & Pilsbry 1897 O27
  D. novemcostatum [incl. D. fasciatum] D26
  D. numerosum Dall 1897 [=D. oerstedtii numerosum] O27
  D. octangulatum Donovan 1803 H09
  D. octogonum D26
  D. oerstedtii O27
  D. otamaringaensis Marwick 1926 F27a
  D. pacificum H79
  D. panormum PP64
  D. pareoraensis Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 (see below for synonymy) F27b
  D. politum D26
  D. potteri Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
  D. pretiosum Sowerby 1860 O27 [incl. D. indianorum C64]
  D. priscum W77
  D. pseudoentalis D26
  D. pseudosexagonum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. quadrangulare C64
  D. quadricostatum Brazier 1877 H09
  D. rectius Carpenter 1864 C64
  D. semipolitum Broderip & Sowerby 1829 O27 [incl. D. hyalinum C64]
  D. semistriatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. sexangulare [incl. D. sexangulum] D26
  D. solidum Hutton 1873 F27b
  D. splendidum C64
  D. strangulatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. striatum D26
  D. substriatum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. sulcatum D26
  D. tenue H86a
  D. translucidum Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. vallicolens Raymond 1904 O27
  D. variabile Deshayes 1826 D26
  D. vernedei PR79
  D. watsoni Sharp & Pilsbry 1897 O27

Dentalium pareoraensis Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 [=D. laevis Hutton 1873 nec D. laeve Turton 1819 nec D. laevis Schlotheim 1820] F27b

Dentalium (Antalis Adams & Adams 1854) L60 [incl. Dentale Da Costa 1778 (nom. rej.) E52, Entaliopsis Newton & Harris 1894 L60, Entalis Gray 1847 non Sowerby 1839 L60; Antalinae]

Dentalium (*Antalis) entalis Linnaeus 1758 L60 [incl. D. abyssorum Sars 1865 N79, D. agile Sars 1872 N79, D. entalis var. agile N79, D. striolatum Stimpson 1851 N79, D. entalis var. striolatum N79, D. tarentinum D26]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

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Last updated: 10 August 2021.

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