Dentalium

Dentalium elephantinum, from here.


Belongs within: Scaphopoda.

Dentalium is a cosmopolitan genus of tusk shells known from the Middle Triassic to the present day. In members of the type subgenus, the shell is prismatic or strongly ribbed, with a polygonal cross-section toward the apex (Ludbrook 1960).

Characters (from Ludbrook 1960): Shell curved and tapering, longitudinally sculptured, smooth or annulated. Embryonic whorls minute, fragile, lost at an early growth stage. Apex commonly modified by slit or notch due to absorption. Anterior aperture circular or oblique, in many forms modified by longitudinal ribbing.

<==Dentalium Linnaeus 1758 DK08
    |--D. (Dentalium) [incl. Paradentalium Cotton & Godfrey 1933] L60
    |    |--*D. (D.) elephantinum Linnaeus 1758 L60
    |    `--D. (D.) tiwhana Dell 1953 P61
    |--D. (Coccodentalium Sacco 1896) L60
    |    |--D. (*C.) radula Schröter 1784 L60
    |    `--‘Coccodentalium’ carduus (Dall 1889) S11
    |--D. (Compressidens Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    `--D. (*C.) pressum Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 L60
    |--D. (Episiphon Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    `--D. (*E.) sowerbyi Guilding 1834 L60
    |--D. (Gadilina Foresti 1895) L60
    |    `--D. (*G.) triquetrum Brocchi 1814 L60
    |--D. (Graptacme Pilsbry & Sharp 1897) L60
    |    |--D. (*G.) eboreum Conrad 1846 L60 [=*Graptacme eborea L60, WT06]
    |    `--D. (G.) sectum Deshayes 1826 PP78
    |--D. (Heteroschismoides Ludbrook 1960) [=Heteroschisma Simroth 1895 non Wachsmuth 1883] L60
    |    `--D. (*H.) subterfissum Jeffreys 1877) [=Heteroschisma subterfissum] L60
    |--D. (Lobantale Cossmann 1888) L60
    |    `--D. (*L.) duplex Defrance 1819 L60
    `--D. (Tesseracme Pilsbry & Sharp 1898) L60
         |--D. (*T.) quadrapicale Sowerby 1860 L60
         `--D. (T.) tesseragonum Sowerby 1832 PP78

Dentalium incertae sedis:
  D. aequatorium O27
  D. agassizii Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 O27
  D. annulosum Brazier 1877 H09
  D. batheri Finlay 1927 [=D. huttoni Bather 1905 non Kirk 1880] F27b
  D. bisexangulatum Sowerby 1860 H09
  D. candidum [incl. D. solidum Verrill 1884 non Hutton 1873] F27b
  D. canna White 1874 W77
  D. cheverti Sharp & Pilsbry 1897 H09
  D. clathratum Martens 1881 H09
  D. collinsae Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
  D. compressum d’Orbigny 1850 F27b
  D. ‘compressum’ Watson 1879 non d’Orbigny 1850 F27b
  D. conspicuum PR79
  D. dalli Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 O27
  D. dispar Sowerby 1860 H09
  D. duodecimcostatum Brazier 1877 H09
  D. fisheri Stearns in Pilsbry 1897 O27
  D. hexagonum Gould 1859 MG-H11
  D. inaequicostatum GO06
  D. inversum Deshayes 1825 O27
  D. javanum Sowerby 1860 H09
  D. laeve Turton 1819 F27b
  D. ‘laevis’ Schlotheim 1820 non D. laeve Turton 1819 F27b
  D. longitrorsum Reeve 1842 H09
  D. mantelli F27a
  D. neohexagonum Sharp & Pilsbry 1897 O27
  D. numerosum Dall 1897 [=D. oerstedtii numerosum] O27
  D. octangulatum Donovan 1803 H09
  D. oerstedtii O27
  D. otamaringaensis Marwick 1926 F27a
  D. pareoraensis Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 (see below for synonymy) F27b
  D. pilsbryi GD00
  D. potteri Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
  D. pretiosum Sowerby 1860 O27
  D. priscum W77
  D. pseudosexagonum Deshayes 1825 H09
  D. quadricostatum Brazier 1877 H09
  D. semipolitum Broderip & Sowerby 1829 O27
  D. solidum Hutton 1873 F27b
  D. vallicolens Raymond 1904 O27
  D. vernedei PR79
  D. vulgare M62
  D. watsoni Sharp & Pilsbry 1897 O27

Dentalium pareoraensis Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 [=D. laevis Hutton 1873 nec D. laeve Turton 1819 nec D. laevis Schlotheim 1820] F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L60] Ludbrook, N. H. 1960. Scaphopoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I37–I41. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PR79] Pojeta, J., Jr & B. Runnegar. 1979. Rhytiodentalium kentuckyensis, a new genus and new species of Ordovician scaphopod, and the early history of scaphopod mollusks. Journal of Paleontology 53 (3): 530–541.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WT06] Waeschenbach, A., M. J. Telford, J. S. Porter & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2006. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 195–207.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 211–221.

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