Conoidea

Turris annulata, from here.


Belongs within: Siphonogastropoda.
Contains: Speightiidae, Conidae, Clathurellidae, Conorbidae, Borsoniidae, Mangeliidae, Raphitomidae, Mitromorpha, Scrinium, Cochlespira, Aforia, Apiotoma, Nihonia, Drilliidae, Antiplanes, Epideira, Megasurcula, Austrotoma, Compsodrillia, Lioglyphostoma, Leucosyrinx, Comitas, Knefastia, Pseudomelatoma, Carinodrillia, Inquisitor, Crassispira (Crassispira), Clavatulidae, Marshallena, Aoteadrillia, Austrodrillia, Inodrillia, Mauidrillia, Paradrillia, Anacithara (Anacithara), Terebridae, Unedogemmula, Coronia, Cryptogemma, Pleuroliria, Eopleurotoma (Eopleurotoma), Lucerapex, Polystira, Turridrupa, Lophiotoma, Gemmula (Gemmula), Turris (Turris).

The Conoidea are a diverse clade of predatory marine gastropods, many of which have the radula modified for the delivery of venom (hence the alternative name sometimes used for the group of Toxoglossa). With the exceptions of the derived families Conidae and Terebridae, most of the externally less differentiated members of the Conoidea have been classified in the past into a broad family Turridae, now divided on phylogenetic grounds between several families. The Turridae sensu stricto are a more tightly defined group with a usually narrowly fusiform shell with obsolete axial sculpture and a peripheral anal sinus. Other families include the Horaiclavidae, a group of generally small (5–25 mm) conoids with a short, stout shell bearing a short and weakly differentiated siphonal canal, and usually with weak spiral sculpture (Bouchet et al. 2011).

Characters (from Simone 2011): Shell normally thick-walled. Odontophore and midesophagus reduced. Esophageal (venom) gland elongated, with muscular bulb at distal end, inserted close to nerve ring. Rinchodeal wall weakly muscular and not exteriorized.

Conoidea [Conacea, Toxoglossa, Turrina, Turroidea]
    |--+--+--Conidae PK11
    |  |  |--Clathurellidae PK11
    |  |  `--+--Conorbidae PK11
    |  |     `--Borsoniidae PK11
    |  `--+--+--Mangeliidae PK11
    |     |  `--Raphitomidae PK11
    |     `--Mitromorphidae [Diptychomitrinae, Mitrolumnidae, Mitromorphinae, Mitromorphini] PK11
    |          |--Mitromorpha BR05
    |          |--Scrinium P66
    |          |--Anarithma Iredale 1918 BK11
    |          |    `--*A. metula (Hinds 1843) [=Clavatula metula] P66
    |          |--Arielia Shasky 1961 BK11
    |          |    |--*A. (Arielia) mitriformis Shasky 1961 P66 [=Mitrolumna mitriformis BC01]
    |          |    `--A. (Vexiariella Shuto 1983) BK11
    |          |--Maorimorpha Powell 1939 BK11
    |          |    |--*M. suteri (Murdoch 1905) P66 [=Mitromorpha suteri P66, Alcira suteri F27a]
    |          |    `--M. secunda Powell 1942 P66
    |          |--Mitrellatoma Powell 1942 BK11
    |          |    |--*M. angustata (Hutton 1886) [=Columbella angustata] P66
    |          |    `--‘Pleurotoma’ ligata Defrance 1826 P66
    |          `--Lovellona Iredale 1917 BK11
    |               |--*L. atramentosa (Reeve 1849) [=Conus atramentosus] P66
    |               |--L. micarius (Hedley 1912) [=Conus micarius] P66
    |               `--L. peaseana Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) P66
    `--+--Cochlespiridae [Cochlespirinae] PK11
       |    |--Cochlespira BK11
       |    |--Aforia BK11
       |    |--Apiotoma BK11
       |    |--Nihonia BK11
       |    |--Sibogasyrinx Powell 1969 BK11
       |    |    `--*S. pyramidalis [=Leucosyrinx (*Sibogasyrinx) pyramidalis] BK11
       |    `--Clavosurcula Schepman 1913 BK11
       |         `--*C. sibogae Schepman 1913 P66
       `--+--+--Drilliidae PK11
          |  `--Pseudomelatomidae [Crassispirinae, Pseudomelatominae, Zonulispirinae] PK11
          |       |  i. s.: Antiplanes BK11
          |       |         Epideira BK11
          |       |         Megasurcula BK11
          |       |         Naudedrillia Kilburn 1988 BK11
          |       |         Abyssocomitas Sysoev & Kantor 1986 BK11
          |       |         Aguilaria Taylor & Wells 1994 BK11
          |       |         Austrotoma BK11
          |       |         Calcatodrilla Dall 1919 BK11
          |       |         Compsodrillia BK11
          |       |         Cretaspira Kuroda & Oyama in Kuroda, Habe & Oyama 1971 BK11
          |       |         Gibbaspira McLean 1971 BK11
          |       |         Glossispira McLean 1971 BK11
          |       |         Kurodadrillia Azuma 1975 BK11
          |       |         Lioglyphostoma BK11
          |       |         Lioglyphostomella Shuto 1970 BK11
          |       |         Megittia Ray 1977 BK11
          |       |         Pseudotaranis McLean 1995 BK11
          |       |         Crassiclava McLean 1971 BK11
          |       |           `--C. turricula (Sowerby 1834) BK11
          |       |         Conorbela Powell 1951 BK11
          |       |           `--*C. antarctica (Strebel 1908) [=Bela antarctica] P66
          |       |         Plicisyrinx Sysoev & Kantor 1986 BK11
          |       |           `--P. vitjazi Sysoev & Kantor 1986 BK11
          |       |         Maesiella McLean 1971 BK11
          |       |           `--M. maesae McLean & Poorman 1971 BK11
          |       |         Kurilohadalia Sysoev & Kantor 1986 BK11
          |       |           `--K. elongata Sysoev & Kantor 1986 BK11
          |       |         Anticomitas Powell 1942 BK11
          |       |           `--*A. vivens Powell 1942 P66
          |       |         Benthodaphne Oyama 1962 BK11
          |       |           `--*B. glabra (Yokoyama 1920) [=Pleurotoma (Bela) glabra] P66
          |       |         Conticosta Laseron 1954 BK11
          |       |           `--*C. petilinus (Hedley 1922) [=Inquisitor petilinus] P66
          |       |         Doxospira McLean 1971 BK11
          |       |           `--D. hertleini Shasky 1971 BC01
          |       |         Hormospira Berry 1958 BK11
          |       |           |--*H. maculosa (Sowerby 1834) [=Pleurotoma maculosa] P66
          |       |           `--H. libya (Dall 1919) [=Turricula libya] P66
          |       |         Burchia Bartsch 1944 BK11
          |       |           |--*B. redondoensis (Burch 1938) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |           `--B. clionella (Dall 1908) [=Leucosyrinx clionella, Crassispira (Burchia) clionella] P66
          |       |         Buridrillia Olsson 1942 BK11
          |       |           |--*B. panarica (Olsson 1942) [=Clathrodrillia (*Buridrillia) panarica] P66
          |       |           `--B. deroyorum Emerson & McLean 1992 BC01
          |       |         Carinoturris Bartsch 1944 BK11
          |       |           |--*C. adrastia (Dall 1919) [=Cryptogemma adrastia] P66
          |       |           |--C. fortis Bartsch 1944 P66
          |       |           `--C. polycaste (Dall 1919) [=Cryptogemma polycaste] P66
          |       |         Dallspira Bartsch 1950 BK11
          |       |           |--*D. dalli Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (*Dallspira) dalli] P66
          |       |           |--D. bifurca (Smith 1888) [=Crassispira (Dallspira) bifurca] PP78
          |       |           |--D. lowei Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (Dallspira) lowei] P66
          |       |           `--D. martiae (McLean & Poorman 1971) [=Crassispira (Dallspira) martiae] BC01
          |       |         Rhodopetoma Bartsch 1944 BK11
          |       |           |--*R. rhodope (Dall 1919) [=Borsonella rhodope] P66
          |       |           |--R. akkeshiensis Habe 1958 P66
          |       |           |--R. amycus (Dall 1919) [=Antiplanes amycus] P66
          |       |           `--‘Pleurotoma (Clavatula)’ erosa Schrenck 1867 P66
          |       |         Viridrillia Bartsch 1943 [incl. Viridrillina Bartsch 1943] BK11
          |       |           |--*V. williami Bartsch 1943 P66
          |       |           |--V. bahamensis Bartsch 1943 P66
          |       |           |--V. cervina Bartsch 1943 P66
          |       |           `--V. hendersoni Bartsch 1943 [=V. (*Viridrillina) hendersoni] P66
          |       |         Miraclathurella Woodring 1928 BK11
          |       |           |--*M. vittata Woodring 1928 [=Euclathurella (*Miraclathurella) vittata] P66
          |       |           |--M. amica (Pilsbry & Johnson 1917) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |           |--M. entemna Woodring 1928 [=Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) entemna] P66
          |       |           |--M. gracilis (Gabb 1873) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |           `--M. subconsors (Bose 1910) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |         Striospira Bartch 1950 BK11
          |       |           |--*S. lucasensis (Bartsch 1950) [=Crassispira (*Striospira) lucasensis] P66
          |       |           |--S. cortezi Shasky & Campbell 1964 [=Crassispira (Striospira) cortezi] P66
          |       |           |--S. luctuosa (Hinds 1843) [=Pleurotoma luctuosa, Crassispira (Striospira) luctuosa] P66
          |       |           |--S. tabogaensis Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (Striospira) tabogaensis] P66
          |       |           `--S. unicolor (Sowerby 1834) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |         Monilispira Bartsch & Rehder 1939 BK11
          |       |           |--*M. monilis Bartsch & Rehder 1939 [=Crassispira (*Monilispira) monilis] P66
          |       |           |--M. archeri Fargo 1953 [=Crassispira (Monilispira) archeri] P66
          |       |           |--M. bandata (Usticke 1969) [=Psarostola bandata] BC01
          |       |           |--M. monilifera (Carpenter 1856) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |           |--M. nephele (Dall 1919) [=Crassispira (Monilispira) nephele] P66
          |       |           `--M. ochsneri Hertlein & Strong 1949 (see below for synonymy) P66
          |       |         Antimelatoma Powell 1942 BK11
          |       |           |--A. buchanani (Hutton 1873) [=Pleurotoma buchanani] P66
          |       |           |    |--A. b. buchanani P66
          |       |           |    `--*A. b. maorum (Smith 1877) [=Drillia maorum] P66
          |       |           |--A. ahiparana Powell 1942 P66
          |       |           |--A. benthicola Powell 1942 P66
          |       |           `--A. canyonensis Dell 1956 P66
          |       |         Paracomitas Powell 1942 BK11
          |       |           |--*P. castlecliffensis (Marshall & Murdoch 1919) [=Surcula castlecliffensis] P66
          |       |           |--P. augusta (Murdoch & Suter 1906) [=Pleurotoma (Leucosyrinx) augusta] P66
          |       |           |    |--P. a. augusta P61
          |       |           |    `--P. a. powelli Dell 1956 P61
          |       |           |--P. gemmea (Murdoch 1900) [=Pleurotoma gemmea] P66
          |       |           |--P. gypsata (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Drillia) gypsata] P66
          |       |           |--P. protransenna (Marshall & Murdoch 1923) [=Surcula protransenna] P66
          |       |           `--P. rodgersi MacNeil 1960 P66
          |       |--Leucosyrinx PK11
          |       `--+--+--Comitas PK11
          |          |  `--Knefastia PK11
          |          `--+--+--Pseudomelatoma PK1
          |             |  `--Tiariturris Berry 1958 PK11, BK11
          |             |       `--*T. spectabilis Berry 1958 P66
          |             `--+--Otitoma Jousseaume 1898 PK11, BK11 [incl. Thelecytharella Shuto 1969 BK11]
          |                |    `--*O. ottitoma Jousseaume 1898 [=Raphitoma ottitoma] P66
          |                `--+--Carinodrillia PK11
          |                   |--+--Pyrgospira McLean 1971 PK11, BK11
          |                   |  |    |--P. aenone (Dall 1919) BK11
          |                   |  |    `--P. obeliscus (Reeve 1843) PP78
          |                   |  `--+--Zonulispira Bartsch 1950 PK11, BK11
          |                   |     |    |--*Z. zonulata (Reeve 1843) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |                   |     |    |--Z. chrysochildosa Shasky 1971 BC01
          |                   |     |    `--Z. reigeni Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (Zonulispira) reigeni] P66
          |                   |     `--Pilsbryspira McLean 1971 PK11, BK11
          |                   |          |  i. s.: P. albomaculata (Orbigny 1842) S11
          |                   |          |         P. garciacubasi Shasky 1971 BC01
          |                   |          |         P. jayana (Adams 1850) PK11
          |                   |          |         P. leucocyma (Dall 1883) M75 (see below for synonymy)
          |                   |          |--*P. (Pilsbryspira) pilsbryi Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (*P.) pilsbryi] P66
          |                   |          `--P. (Nymphispira McLean 1971) BK11
          |                   `--+--Hindsiclava Hertlein & Strong 1955 [incl. Turrigemma Berry 1958] BK11
          |                      |    |--*H. militaris (Hinds 1843) [=Clavatula militaris] P66
          |                      |    |--H. alesidota (Dall 1889) BK11
          |                      |    |--H. andromeda (Dall 1919) [=Clathrodrillia andromeda] P66
          |                      |    |--H. dotella (Hinds 1843) [=Turris (Surcula) dotella] P66
          |                      |    |--H. hertleini Emerson & Radwin 1969 BC01
          |                      |    `--*Turrigemma’ torquifer Berry 1958 P66
          |                      `--+--+--Cheungbeia Taylor & Wells 1994 PK11, BK11
          |                         |  |    `--C. robusta (Hinds 1839) BK11
          |                         |  `--Funa Kilburn 1988 PK11, BK11
          |                         |       `--F. incerta (Smith 1877) BK11
          |                         `--+--Inquisitor PK11
          |                            `--+--Ptychobela Thiele 1925 BK11 (see below for synonymy)
          |                               |    |--*P. crenularis (Lamarck 1816) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |                               |    |--‘Pleurotoma’ stromboides Sowerby 1832 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) P66
          |                               |    |--‘Pleurotoma’ sumatrensis Petit 1852 [=Brachytoma sumatrensis] P66
          |                               |    `--P. suturalis (Gray 1838) BK11
          |                               `--Crassispira Swainson 1840 PK11, BK11
          |                                    |  i. s.: C. funebralis Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995 BC01
          |                                    |         C. monilecosta Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995 BC01
          |                                    |         C. oliva Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995 BC01
          |                                    |         C. pini Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995 BC01
          |                                    |         C. quadrilirata (Smith 1882) BK11
          |                                    |         C. sacerdotalis Rolán & Fernandes 1992 BC01
          |                                    |--C. (Crassispira) P66
          |                                    `--C. (Crassispirella Bartsch & Rehder 1939) P66
          |                                         |--C. (*C.) rugitecta (Dall 1918) P66 (see below for synonymy)
          |                                         |--C. (C.) ebenina (Dall 1890) [=Drillia ebenina] P66
          |                                         |--C. (C.) fuscescens (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma fuscescens] P66
          |                                         |--C. (C.) hadromeres (Melvill 1927) [=Melatoma hadromeres] P66
          |                                         |--C. (C.) nigrescens (Adams 1845) [=Pleurotoma nigrescens] P66
          |                                         |--C. (C.) sanibelensis Bartsch & Rehder 1939 P66
          |                                         `--C. (C.) tampaensis Bartsch & Rehder 1939 P66
          `--+--+--Clavatulidae PK11
             |  `--Horaiclavidae BK11
             |       |  i. s.: Inkinga Kilburn 1988 BK11
             |       |         Marshallena BK11
             |       |         Aoteadrillia BK11
             |       |         Austrodrillia BK11
             |       |         Coronacomitas Shuto 1983 BK11
             |       |         Cytharoclavus Kuroda & Oyama in Kuroda, Habe & Oyama 1971 BK11
             |       |         Darrylia García 2008 BK11
             |       |         Graciliclava Shuto 1983 BK11
             |       |         Inodrillia BK11
             |       |         Mauidrillia BK11
             |       |         Naskia Sysoev & Ivanov 1985 BK11
             |       |         Nquma Kilburn 1988 BK11
             |       |         Psittacodrillia Kilburn 1988 BK11
             |       |         Striatoguraleus Kilburn 1994 BK11
             |       |         Iwaoa Kuroda 1940 BK11
             |       |           `--*I. reticulata Kuroda 1953 P66
             |       |         Austrocarina Laseron 1954 BK11
             |       |           `--*A. recta (Hedley 1903) P66 [=Leucosyrinx recta P66, Filodrillia recta L54]
             |       |         Micropleurotoma Thiele 1929 BK11
             |       |           |--*M. spirotropoides (Thiele 1925) [=Pleurotoma spirotropoides] P66
             |       |           `--M. ashiyaensis Shuto & Ueda 1963 P66
             |       |         Pseudexomilus Powell 1944 BK11
             |       |           |--*P. caelatus Powell 1944 P66
             |       |           `--P. costicapitata (Verco 1909) [=Drillia costicapitata] P66
             |       |         Thelecythara Woodring 1928 BK11
             |       |           |--*T. mucronata (Guppy 1896) [=Cythara mucronata] P66
             |       |           `--T. floridana Fargo 1953 [incl. T. cruzensis Usticke 1969] BC01
             |       |         Haedropleura Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883 BK11
             |       |           |--*H. septangularis (Montagu 1803) BR05 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |           |    |--H. s. septangularis P66
             |       |           |    `--H. s. rigida (Reeve 1846) [=Mangelia rigida] P66
             |       |           |--H. contii (Bellardi 1878) [=Bela contii] P66
             |       |           |--H. dora Thiele 1925 P66
             |       |           |--H. proxima (Peyrot 1938) [=Bela (Haedropleura) proxima] P66
             |       |           `--H. secalina (Philippi 1844) [=Pleurotoma secalinum] P66
             |       |         Buchema Corea 1934 BK11
             |       |           |--*B. tainoa (Corea 1934) [=Carinodrillia (*Buchema) tainoa] P66
             |       |           |--B. apitoa (Corea 1934) [=Carinodrillia (Buchema) apitoa] P66
             |       |           |--B. interpleura (Dall & Simpson 1901) BK11
             |       |           |--B. interstrigata (Smith 1882) [incl. Monilispira circumcincta Usticke 1969] BC01
             |       |           |--B. liella (Corea 1934) [=Carinodrillia (Buchema) liella] P66
             |       |           |--B. mamona (Corea 1934) [=Carinodrillia (Buchema) mamona] P66
             |       |           |--B. pylonia Fargo 1953 [=Carinodrillia (Buchema) pylonia] P66
             |       |           `--B. suimaca (Corea 1934) [=Carinodrillia (Buchema) suimaca] P66
             |       |--Paradrillia PK11
             |       `--+--+--Carinapex Dall 1924 PK11, BK11
             |          |  |    `--*C. minutissima (Garrett 1873) [=Drillia minutissima] P66
             |          |  `--Ceritoturris Dall 1924 PK11, BK11
             |          |       |--*C. bittium Dall 1924 P66
             |          |       |--C. nataliae Kilburn 1988 BD12
             |          |       `--C. pupiformis (Smith 1884) BK11
             |          `--+--Anguloclavus Shuto 1983 PK11, BK11
             |             `--+--Horaiclavus Oyama 1954 PK11, P66
             |                |    |--*H. splendidus (Adams 1867) P66, BK11 [=Mangelia splendida P66]
             |                |    `--H. madurensis (Schepman 1913) [=Drillia madurensis] P66
             |                `--Anacithara Hedley 1922 PK11, BK11
             |                     |  i. s.: A. themeropsis (Melvill & Standen 1896) BK11
             |                     |--A. (Anacithara) P66
             |                     `--A. (Anacitharoida Shuto 1965) P66
             |                          `--A. (*A.) kurodae Shuto 1965 P66
             `--+--Terebridae PK11
                `--Turridae (see below for synonymy) PK11
                     |  i. s.: ‘Buccinum’ aquilara Watson 1882 PH90
                     |         Unedogemmula BK11
                     |         Coronia P66
                     |         Cryptogemma P66
                     |         Pleuroliria P66
                     |         Eothesbia Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
                     |           `--*E. microtomoides Finlay & Mariwck 1937 P66
                     |         Fusitoma Casey 1904 P66
                     |           `--*F. sipho Casey 1904 P66
                     |         Pyramitoma Martin 1914 P66
                     |           `--*P. puruensis (Martin 1914) [=Pleurotoma (Pyramitoma) puruensis] P66
                     |         Tritonimangilia Martin 1914 P66
                     |           `--*T. varicifera (Martin 1914) [=Mangilia (Tritonimangilia) varicifera] P66
                     |         Varicobela Casey 1904 P66
                     |           `--*V. smithi (Aldrich 1885) [=Strombus smithi] P66
                     |         Parasyngenochilus Long 1981 DK08
                     |           `--P. angustior Long 1981 DK08
                     |         Trypanotopsis Gardner 1945 P66
                     |           `--*T. texana (Gabb 1860) [=Turris texana] P66
                     |         Sinistrella Meyer 1887 P66
                     |           `--*S. americana (Aldrich 1885) [=Triforis americanus, Trypanotoma americana] P66
                     |         Echinoturris Powell 1942 P66
                     |           `--E. finlayi (Powell 1935) [=Turris finlayi] P66
                     |         Decollidrillia Habe & Ito 1965 BK11
                     |           `--*D. nigra Habe & Ito 1965 P66
                     |         Nekewis Stewart 1926 P66
                     |           |--*N. washingtoniana (Weaver 1912) [=Fasciolaria washingtoniana] P66
                     |           `--N. io (Gabb 1864) (see below for synonymy) P66
                     |         Campylacrum Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
                     |           |--*C. sanum Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
                     |           `--C. debile Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
                     |         Hemipleurotoma Cossmann 1889 P66
                     |           |--*H. archimedis (Bellardi 1878) [=Pleurotoma archimedis] P66
                     |           `--H. denticula (Basterot 1825) [=Pleurotoma denticula] P66
                     |         Epidirella Iredale 1913 [=Austrogemmula Laseron 1954] BK11
                     |           |--E. xanthophaes (Watson 1886) (see below for synonymy) P66
                     |           `--E. sayceana (Chapman 1912) [=Pleurotoma sayceana] P66
                     |         Heteroterma Gabb 1868 P66
                     |           |--*H. trochoidea Gabb 1868 P66
                     |           |--‘Cominella’ praecursor Wilckens 1907 P66
                     |           `--H. zelandica Marshall 1917 P66
                     |         Hesperiturris Gardner 1945 P66
                     |           |--*H. nodocarinata (Gabb 1860) [=Turris nodocarinata] P66
                     |           |--H. amichel Gardner 1945 P66
                     |           `--H. zacatensis Gardner 1945 P66
                     |         Zexilia Finlay 1927 P66
                     |           |--*Z. waihaoensis (Suter 1917) [=Exilia waihaoensis] P66
                     |           |--Z. cingulata [=Latirofusus cingulatus] F27b
                     |           |--Z. crassicostata [=Exilia crassicostata] F27b
                     |           `--Z. dalli (Suter 1915) [=Exilia dalli] F27b
                     |         Eoturris Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
                     |           |--*E. complicatus (Suter 1917) [=Turris complicatus] P66
                     |           |--E. multicinctus (Marshall 1917) [=Turris multicinctus] P66
                     |           |--E. neglectus (Suter 1917) P66 (see below for synonymy)
                     |           `--E. uttleyi (Suter 1917) [=Turris uttleyi] P66
                     |         Optoturris Powell 1944 P66
                     |           |--*O. optata (Harris 1897) [=Pleurotoma optata] P66
                     |           |--O. edita Powell 1944 P66
                     |           |--O. kyushuensis Shuto 1961 P66
                     |           `--O. paracantha (Tenison-Woods 1877) [=Pleurotoma paracantha] P66
                     |         Kuroshioturris Shuto 1961 BK11
                     |           |--*K. hyugaensis Shuto 1961 (see below for synonymy) P66
                     |           |--K. asukana (Yokoyama 1926) (see below for synonymy) P66
                     |           |--K. nipponica (Shuto 1961) [=Gemmula (Ptychosyrinx) nipponicus] P66
                     |           `--K. totomiensis (Makiyama 1931) (see below for synonymy) P66
                     |         Epalxis Cossmann 1889 P66
                     |           |--*E. crenulata (Lamarck 1804) [=Pleurotoma crenulata] P66
                     |           |--E. bilirata (Boury 1899) [=Pleurotoma bilirata] P66
                     |           |--E. lemoinei Boury 1899 P66
                     |           |--E. multigyrata (Deshayes 1865) [=Pleurotoma multigyrata] P66
                     |           `--E. ventricosa (Lamarck 1804) P66 (see below for synonymy)
                     |         Exilia Conrad 1860 P66
                     |           |--*E. pergracilis Conrad 1860 P66
                     |           |--E. diaboli (Gabb 1864) [=Fusus diaboli] P66
                     |           |--E. fausta Anderson & Hanna 1925 P66
                     |           |--E. kelseyi Dall 1908 O27
                     |           |--E. microptygma (Gabb 1864) [=Cordieria microptygma] P66
                     |           `--E. rectirostris Carpenter 1865 O27
                     |         Eopleurotoma Cossmann 1889 [incl. Eodrillia Casey 1904] P66
                     |           |--E. (Eopleurotoma) P66
                     |           `--E. (Oxyacrum Cossmann 1889) P66
                     |                |--E. (*O.) obliterata (Deshayes 1834) [=Pleurotoma obliterata] P66
                     |                |--E. (O.) constricta (Edwards 1861) [=Pleurotoma constricta] P66
                     |                |--E. (O.) inflexa (Lamarck 1804) [=Pleurotoma inflexa] P66
                     |                `--E. (O.) lepta (Edwards 1861) P66
                     |         Veruturris Powell 1944 P66
                     |           |--V. (Veruturris) P66
                     |           |    |--*V. (V.) quadricarinata (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) quadricarinatus] P66
                     |           |    |--V. (V.) bisculpta (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) bisculptus] P66
                     |           |    |--V. (V.) cochleata (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) cochleatus] P66
                     |           |    |--V. (V.) subconcava (Harris 1897) [=Pleurotoma subconcava] P66
                     |           |    `--V. (V.) tomopleuroides (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) tomopleuroides] P66
                     |           `--V. (Cinguliturris Powell 1964) P66
                     |                `--V. (*C.) tatei (Cossmann 1896) [=Asthenotoma tatei] P66
                     |         Ptychosyrinx Thiele 1925 [incl. Bathybermudia Haas 1949] P66
                     |           |--*P. bisinuata (Martens 1901) [=Pleurotoma (Subulata) bisinuata] P66
                     |           |--P. carynae (Haas 1949) [=*Bathybermudia carynae] P66
                     |           |--P. chilensis Berry 1968 BK11
                     |           |--P. lobata (Sowerby 1903) [=Pleurotoma (Surcula) lobata] P66
                     |           |--P. timorensis (Tesch 1915) [=Pleurotoma timorensis] P66
                     |           |    |--P. t. timorensis P66
                     |           |    `--P. t. teschi Powell 1964 P66
                     |           `--P. truncata (Schepman 1913) [=Pleurotoma truncata] P66
                     |         Trypanotoma Cossmann 1896 P66
                     |           |--*T. terebriformis (Meyer 1886) [=Pleurotoma terebriformis] P66
                     |           |    |--T. t. terebriformis P66
                     |           |    |--T. t. cooperi Harris 1937 P66
                     |           |    `--T. t. curta Harris 1937 P66
                     |           |--T. carlottae (Harris 1899) [=Pleurotoma carlottae] P66
                     |           |--T. longispira Casey 1904 P66
                     |           |--T. melanella Harris 1937 P66
                     |           |--T. obtusa Casey 1904 P66
                     |           `--T. stocki (Dickerson 1916) [=Turris stocki] P66
                     |--Lucerapex PK11
                     `--+--Polystira PK11
                        `--+--Turridrupa PK11
                           `--+--+--Lophiotoma PK11
                              |  `--Gemmula Weinkauff 1875 PK11, BK11 [incl. Eugemmula Iredale 1931 BK11]
                              |       |  i. s.: G. complicata A27
                              |       |         G. cretacea Sohl 1964 BD12
                              |       |         G. mystica Simone 2005 S11
                              |       |         G. rarimaculata (Kuroda & Oyama 1971) BK11
                              |       |         G. westaustralis Kosuge 1990 MG-H11
                              |       |--G. (Gemmula) P66
                              |       `--G. (Pinguigemmula MacNeil 1960) BK11
                              |            |--*Pinguigemmula’ okinavensis MacNeil 1960 P66
                              |            |--‘Pinguigemmula’ luzonica Powell 1964 P66
                              |            |--‘Pinguigemmula’ philippinensis Powell 1964 MG-H11
                              |            `--G. (P.) thielei Finlay 1930 (see below for synonymy) P66
                              `--+--+--Iotyrris Medinskaya & Sysoev 2001 PK11, BK11
                                 |  |    `--I. cingulifera (Lamarck 1822) BK11
                                 |  `--Xenuroturris Iredale 1929 PK11, P66 [incl. Clamturris Iredale 1931 P66]
                                 |       |--X. cingulifera (Lamarck 1822) (see below for synonymy) P66
                                 |       |    |--X. c. cingulifera P66
                                 |       |    `--X. c. erythraea (Weinkauff 1875) [=Pleurotoma erythraea] P66
                                 |       |--X. castanella Powell 1964 P66
                                 |       |--X. cerithiformis Powell 1964 P66
                                 |       |--X. incredula (Iredale 1931) [=*Clamturris incredula] P66
                                 |       |--X. kingae Powell 1964 P66
                                 |       |--X. legitima Iredale 1929 BK11
                                 |       `--X. millepunctata (Sowerby 1908) [=Pleurotoma millepunctata] P66
                                 `--Turris Batsch 1789 PK11, BK11 (see below for synonymy)
                                      |  i. s.: T. carlsoni Anderson & Martin 1914 AV03
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ circumsecta Mighels 1845 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ clarkei Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ coronata Mighels 1845 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ coronifer Bellardi 1877 F27b
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma crassilabrum’ Mighels 1845 non Reeve 1843 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ gemmata Hinds 1843 H09
                                      |         T. granosa (Helbling 1779) [=Murex granosus] H09
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ insculpta Mighels 1844 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ micans Mighels 1845 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ murndaliana Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ obnubila Mighels 1845 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ ovalis [=Cancellaria ovalis] PH90
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ parva Conrad 1830 F27b
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ pumila Mighels 1845 J49 (see below for synonymy)
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ reticulata Brown 1827 F27b
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma reticulata’ Philippi 1844 non Brown 1827 F27b
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ sinuosa Mighels 1845 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ todilla Mighels 1845 J49
                                      |         ‘Pleurotoma’ violacea Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
                                      |--T. (Turris) P66
                                      `--T. (Annulaturris Powell 1966) P66
                                           |--T. (*A.) amicta (Smith 1877) [=Pleurotoma amicta] P66
                                           `--T. (A.) annulata (Reeve 1843) (see below for synonymy) P66

Conoidea incertae sedis:
  Speightiidae P66
  Hemiconidae BK11
  Johnwyattia Serna 1979 BR05 [Johnwyattidae BK11]
    `--J. johnwatti Serna 1979 BR05
  Strictispiridae [Strictispirinae] BK11
    |--Cleospira McLean 1971 BK11
    `--Strictispira McLean 1971 BR05
         |--S. ericana (Hertlein & Strong 1951) PP78
         |--S. paxillus (Reeve 1845) BK11
         |--S. solida (Adams 1850) BK11
         `--S. stillmani Shasky 1971 BC01

*Burchia redondoensis (Burch 1938) [=Pseudomelatoma semiinflata redondoensis, Crassispira (*Burchia) redondoensis] P66

Crassispira (*Crassispirella) rugitecta (Dall 1918) P66 [=Turris (Crassispira) rugitecta D19]

Eoturris neglectus (Suter 1917) P66 [=Turris neglectus nec Lesson 1837 (not preoc. as in homonymous genera) nec Pleurotoma neglecta Reeve 1842 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) P66, T. insensus Finlay 1924 F27b, Gemmula insensa F27b]

Epalxis ventricosa (Lamarck 1804) P66 [=Pleurotoma ventricosa P66, Drillia ventricosa H09]

Epidirella xanthophaes (Watson 1886) [=Pleurotoma xanthophaes; incl. Hemipleurotoma tasmanica May 1911, *Austrogemmula tasmanica, *Epidirella tasmanica] P66

Gemmula (Pinguigemmula) thielei Finlay 1930 [incl. Pleurotoma (Gemmula) fusiformis Thiele 1925 nec Pl. fusiforme Requien 1848 nec Pl. nebula fusiforme Marshall 1893] P66

*Haedropleura septangularis (Montagu 1803) BR05 [=Murex septangularis BR05, Bela septangularis BR05, Pleurotoma septangularis P66; incl. Mangilia goreensis Maltzan 1883 P66, P. heptagona Scacchi 1835 P66, Cythara maltzani Knudsen 1952 P66, Mangelia plicatilis Risso 1826 P66]

Kuroshioturris asukana (Yokoyama 1926) [=Drillia asukana, Ptychosyrinx (Kuroshioturris) asukana] P66

*Kuroshioturris hyugaensis Shuto 1961 [=Gemmula (*Kuroshioturris) hyugaensis, Ptychosyrinx (*K.) hyugaensis] P66

Kuroshioturris totomiensis (Makiyama 1931) [=Turris (Gemmula) totomiensis, Ptychosyrinx (Kuroshioturris) totomiensis] P66

Lovellona peaseana Finlay 1927 [=Conus fusiformis Pease 1860 (preoc.), C. parvus Pease 1868 non Lea 1833] P66

Miraclathurella amica (Pilsbry & Johnson 1917) [=Clathurella amica, Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) amica] P66

Miraclathurella gracilis (Gabb 1873) [=Defrancia gracilis, Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) gracilis] P66

Miraclathurella subconsors (Bose 1910) [=Pleurotoma (Drillia) subconsors, Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) subconsors] P66

Monilispira monilifera (Carpenter 1856) [=Drillia monilifera, Crassispira (Monilispira) monilifera] P66

Monilispira ochsneri Hertlein & Strong 1949 [=Crassispira (Monilispira) ochsneri; incl. Pleurotoma bicolor Sowerby 1834 non Risso 1826] P66

Nekewis io (Gabb 1864) [=Fasciolaria io; incl. Surcula alizensis Anderson & Hanna 1925, S. ioformis Anderson & Hanna 1925] P66

Pilsbryspira leucocyma (Dall 1883) M75 [=Drillia leucocyma P66, Crassispira (Monilispira) leucocyma M75]

‘Pleurotoma’ pumila Mighels 1845 J49 [incl. P. reticulata Garrett 1857 nec Brown 1827 nec Philippi 1844 F27b]

‘Pleurotoma’ stromboides Sowerby 1832 (n. d.) [=Brachytoma stromboides, P. strombiformis Sowerby 1839, *B. strombiformis, *Strombina stromboides] P66

Ptychobela Thiele 1925 BK11 [incl. Brachytoma Swainson 1840 (n. d.) BK11, Strombina Gregorio 1890 nec Mörch 1852 P66; Brachytominae]

*Ptychobela crenularis (Lamarck 1816) [=Pleurotoma crenularis, Brachytoma crenularis, Clavatula crenularis, Inquisitor crenularis] P66

Striospira unicolor (Sowerby 1834) [=Pleurotoma unicolor, Crassispira (Striospira) unicolor] P66

Turridae [Pleurotomaceae, Pleurotomidae, Pleurotomina, Pleurotominae, Turritidae, Turrinae, Turrini, Turritinae] PK11

Turris Batsch 1789 PK11, BK11 [=Pleurotoma Lamarck 1799 BK11, Pleurotomus Blainville 1810 BK11]

Turris (Annulaturris) annulata (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma annulata; incl. P. fagina Adams & Reeve 1850] P66

Xenuroturris cingulifera (Lamarck 1822) [=Pleurotoma cingulifera; incl. *X. legitima Iredale 1929] P66

*Zonulispira zonulata (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma zonulata, Crassispira (*Zonulispira) zonulata] P66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[AV03] Amano, K., & G. J. Vermeij. 2003. Evolutionary adaptation and geographic spread of the Cenozoic buccinid genus Lirabuccinum in the North Pacific. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 863–872.

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[D19] Dall, W. H. 1919. Descriptions of new species of mollusks of the family Turritidae from the west coast of America and adjacent regions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 56 (2288): 1–86, pls 1–24.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L54] Laseron, C. F. 1954. Revision of the New South Wales Turridae (Mollusca). Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.

[M75] Maes, V. O. 1975. The genus Pilsbryspira: its position in history and the family Turridae. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union 1975: 60–61.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus Supplement 1: 1–69.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[PK11] Puillandre, N., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, A. Couloux, C. Meyer, T. Rawlings, J. A. Todd & P. Bouchet. 2011. The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 259–272.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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