Terebra taurina, copyright Eddie Hardy.

Belongs within: Terebridae.

Terebra is a genus of auger shells with a very high spire, more than twice the height of the aperture. The genus has historically been very broadly defined and its boundaries relative to other terebrids remains uncertain. Most species lack poison glands and an associated radular apparatus, instead having an accessory feeding organ that grasps prey and pulls it into the labial cavity. However, the Brazilian species Terebra imitatrix combines both poison glands and the accessory feeding apparatus (Auffenberg & Lee 1988).

Synapomorphies (from Simone 2011): Spire high. Eyes situated at tentacle tips. Pallial cavity with long posterior region lacking gill. Salivary glands very small. Exophallic penis present near median line. Anterior visceral gonoduct with long narrow part.

Terebra Bruguière 1789 (see below for synonymy) BK11
    |--T. taurina (Lightfoot 1786) S11
    `--+--+--T. crassireticula Simone 1999 S11
       |  `--T. leptapsis Simone 1999 S11
       `--+--T. spirosulcata Simone 1999 S11
          `--+--T. brasiliensis (Smith 1873) S11
             `--+--T. dislocata Say 1822 S11 [=Cerithium dislocatum C64]
                `--T. gemmulata Kiener 1839 S11

Terebra incertae sedis:
  *T. subulata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Buccinum subulatum] BR17
  T. affinis Gray 1834 WG71
  T. albida Gray 1834 WG71
  T. albomarginata Deshayes 1859 WG71
  T. allyni Bratcher & Burch 1970 BC01
  T. angelli (Gibson-Smith & Gibson-Smith 1984) [=Strioterebrum angelli] BC01
  T. areolata (Link 1807) WG71
  T. aspera [incl. T. petiveriana Desh. 1859] C64
  T. australis Smith 1873 H09
  T. babylonia Lamarck 1822 WG71
  T. bernardi Deshayes 1857 H09
  T. bicincta Hinds 1844 F27
  T. bridgesi Dall 1908 [incl. T. (Strioterebrum) dushanae Campbell 1964] BC01
  T. caelata Adams & Reeve 1850 H09
  T. canalis F27
    |--T. c. canalis F27
    `--T. c. wouveri Finlay 1927 [=T. canalis var. costata nec Borson 1823 nec Lea 1833 nec Hutton 1885] F27
  T. cancellata Quoy & Gaimard 1833 H09
  T. carolae Bratcher 1979 BC01
  T. calenifera [incl. Cerithium bicorona] H86b
  T. cerethina Lamarck 1822 WG71
  T. chlorata Lamarck 1822 WG71
  T. cinerea [incl. T. castanea, T. jamaicensis, T. laurina, T. stylata] C64
  T. cingulifera FP15
  T. circumcincta Deshayes 1857 H09
  T. columellaris Hinds 1844 H09
  T. commaculata (Gmelin 1791) MG-H11
  T. costata Borson 1823 F27
  T. ‘costata’ Lea 1833 non Borson 1823 F27
  T. crenifera Deshayes 1859 PP78
  T. crenulata (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 [=Buccinum crenulatum H09]
  T. dimidiata (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 [=Buccinum dimidiatum H09]
  T. elata Hinds 1844 PP78
  T. exigua Deshayes 1859 H09
  T. feldmanni (Bolten 1798) [=Epitonium feldmanni] H09
  T. felina (Dillwyn 1817) WG71
  T. fenestrata Hinds 1844 MG-H11
  T. fernandesi Bouchet 1982 BC01
  T. formosa Desh. 1859 C64
  T. fortunei Deshayes 1857 MG-H11
  T. glauca Hinds 1844 [incl. T. dorothyae Bratcher & Burch 1970] BC01
  T. guttata (Röding 1798) WG71
  T. hancocki Bratcher & Burch 1970 BC01
  T. hectica Linnaeus 1758 [incl. T. caerulescens Lamarck 1822] WG71
  T. imitatrix Auffenberg & Lee 1988 BC01
  T. insignis Dsh. 1859 C64
  T. inversa F27
    |--T. i. inversa F27
    `--T. i. oakleyana Finlay 1927 [=T. inversa var. costata nec Borson 1823 nec Lea 1833 nec Hutton 1885] F27
  T. jacquelinae Bratcher & Burch 1970 [incl. T. hertleini Bratcher & Burch 1970] BC01
  T. jukesi Deshayes 1857 H09
  T. koreana ZLK11
  T. larviformis Hds. 1859 C64
  T. lima Deshayes 1859 WG71
  T. lingualis C64
  T. loroisi C64
  T. luctuosa [=Subula luctuosa] C64
  T. marmorata Deshayes 1859 H09
  T. martini Vredenburg 1925 [=T. bicincta Martin 1879 non Hinds 1844] F27
  T. maryleenae Burch 1965 BC01 [=Hastula maryleeae AL88; incl. T. tobagoensis Usticke 1969 BC01]
  T. muscaria Lamarck 1822 H09
  T. nebulosa (Sowerby 1825) WG71
  T. nitida H86a
  T. ornatum (Martyn 1786) [=Buccinum ornatum] H09
  T. ‘ornata’ Gray 1834 non Buccinum ornatum Martyn 1786 PP78
  T. paucincisa Bratcher 1988 BC01
  T. pertusa (Born 1778) MG-H11 [=Buccinum pertusum H09]
  T. plumbea Quoy & Gaimard 1833 [incl. T. (Strioterebrum) hoffmeyeri Abbott 1952] BC01
  T. polygyrata Deshayes 1859 H09
  T. rancheria Bratcher 1988 BC01
  T. robusta (Hinds 1844) [incl. T. macrospira Li 1930] BC01
  T. rufocinerea [incl. T. rudis] C64
  T. salleana Desh. 1859 C64
  T. simplex Conrad 1830 F27
  T. specillata Hds. 1859 C64
  T. spectabilis Hinds 1844 H09
  T. straminea Gray 1834 H09
  T. strigata Sby. 1859 [=Subula strigata] C64
  T. strigosa [incl. Buccinum elongatum, T. elongata, T. flammea, T. incomparabilis Desh. 1859, T. zebra] C64
  T. taylori Reeve 1860 H09
  T. telegdi Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27
  T. tenera Hinds 1844 H09
  T. tenisoni Finlay 1827 [=T. simplex Tenison-Woods 1876 nec Conrad 1830 nec Carpenter 1865] F27
  T. textilis Hinds 1844 PK11
  T. triseriata Gray 1834 WG71
  T. troendlei Bratcher 1981 BC01
  T. tuberculosa Hinds 1844 [incl. T. cracilenta Li 1930, T. gracilenta, T. tenuis Li 1930] BC01
  T. turrita Smith 1873 H09
  T. turschi Bratcher 1981 BC01
  T. undulata Gray 1834 WG71
  T. variegata Gray 1834 BC01 (see below for synonymy)

Nomen nudum: Terebra sterigma Simone 2011 S11

Terebra Bruguière 1789 [=Terebrum Montfort 1810; incl. Myurellina Bartsch 1923, Panaterebra Olsson 1967, Paraterebra Woodring 1928, Subula Schumacher 1817] BK11

Terebra telegdi Finlay 1927 [=T. simplex v. Telegd 1914 nec Conrad 1830 nec Carpenter 1865 nec Tenison-Woods 1876] F27

Terebra variegata Gray 1834 BC01 [incl. T. africana C64, T. albocincta C64, T. armillata C64, T. hindsii C64, T. hupei C64, T. intertincta C64, T. marginata C64, T. (Strioterebrum) melia Pilsbry 1931 BC01, T. subnodosa C64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AL88] Auffenberg, K., & H. G. Lee. 1988. A new species of intertidal Terebra from Brazil. Nautilus 102 (4): 154–158.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[PK11] Puillandre, N., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, A. Couloux, C. Meyer, T. Rawlings, J. A. Todd & P. Bouchet. 2011. The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 259–272.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 29 May 2021.

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