Turris annulata, copyright Didier Gille.

Belongs within: Conoidea.
Contains: Unedogemmula, Coronia, Cryptogemma, Pleuroliria, Eopleurotoma (Eopleurotoma), Polystira, Turridrupa, Lophiotoma, Gemmula (Gemmula), Turris (Turris).

The Turridae are a group of marine gastropods previously recognised as including all non-conid and non-terebrid conoids but now restricted to a monophyletic group with a usually narrowly fusiform shell bearing obsolete axial sculpture and a peripheral anal sinus (Bouchet et al. 2011).

Characters (from Bouchet et al. 2011): Shell of medium to large size (usually 20–30 mm, up to 110 mm high), short- to high-fusiform, usually with high spire and long (rarely short and truncated) siphonal canal. Axial sculpture weak or absent. Anal sinus on whorl periphery. Protoconch typically multispiral, up to six whorls, protoconch I smooth, protoconch II with arcuate axial riblets; reduced paucispiral protoconch usually smooth, may have arcuate axial riblets. Operculum fully developed, with terminal nucleus. Radular formula typically 1-(1:R:1)-1. Small and narrow rachidian and plate-like laterals fused together, together constituting central formation of different development, varying from well-defined broad central tooth to tooth clearly formed of three elements through gradual reduction of rachidian and/or laterals to complete absence. Marginals duplex, of variable morphology, from broadly oval and flattened with nearly equally developed limbs to awl-shaped and divided only in basal part; major limb most commonly large and knife-shaped, accessory limb dorsal and more weakly developed.

<==Turridae [Pleurotomaceae, Pleurotomidae, Pleurotomina, Pleurotominae, Turritidae, Turrinae, Turrini, Turritinae] PK11
    |--Lucerapex Iredale 1936 PK11, P66
    |    |--*L. casearia (Hedley & Petterd 1906) [=Pleurotoma casearia] P66
    |    |    |--L. c. casearia P66
    |    |    `--L. c. regilla Iredale 1936 P66
    |    |--L. adenica Powell 1964 P66
    |    |--L. angustatus (Powell 1940) [=Micantapex angustatus] P66
    |    |--L. carola (Thiele 1925) [=Pleurotoma carola] P66
    |    |--L. ‘denticulata’ (Thiele 1925) [=Pleurotoma denticulata non Smith 1884] P66
    |    |--L. indagatoris (Finlay 1927) [=Gemmula indagatoris; incl. Pleurotoma optata Smith 1899 non Harris 1897] P66
    |    |--L. molengraffi (Tesch 1915) [=Pleurotoma molengraffi] P66
    |    `--L. murrayana (Pritchard 1904) [=Pleurotoma murrayana] P66
    `--+--Polystira PK11
       `--+--Turridrupa PK11
          `--+--+--Lophiotoma PK11
             |  `--Gemmula Weinkauff 1875 PK11, BK11 [incl. Eugemmula Iredale 1931 BK11]
             |       |  i. s.: G. complicata A27
             |       |         G. cretacea Sohl 1964 BD12
             |       |         G. mystica Simone 2005 S11
             |       |         G. rarimaculata (Kuroda & Oyama 1971) BK11
             |       |         G. westaustralis Kosuge 1990 MG-H11
             |       |--G. (Gemmula) P66
             |       `--G. (Pinguigemmula MacNeil 1960) BK11
             |            |--*Pinguigemmula’ okinavensis MacNeil 1960 P66
             |            |--‘Pinguigemmula’ luzonica Powell 1964 P66
             |            |--‘Pinguigemmula’ philippinensis Powell 1964 MG-H11
             |            `--G. (P.) thielei Finlay 1930 (see below for synonymy) P66
             `--+--+--Iotyrris Medinskaya & Sysoev 2001 PK11, BK11
                |  |    `--I. cingulifera (Lamarck 1822) BK11
                |  `--Xenuroturris Iredale 1929 PK11, P66 [incl. Clamturris Iredale 1931 P66]
                |       |--X. cingulifera (Lamarck 1822) [=Pleurotoma cingulifera; incl. *X. legitima Iredale 1929] P66
                |       |    |--X. c. cingulifera P66
                |       |    `--X. c. erythraea (Weinkauff 1875) [=Pleurotoma erythraea] P66
                |       |--X. castanella Powell 1964 P66
                |       |--X. cerithiformis Powell 1964 P66
                |       |--X. incredula (Iredale 1931) [=*Clamturris incredula] P66
                |       |--X. kingae Powell 1964 P66
                |       |--X. legitima Iredale 1929 BK11
                |       `--X. millepunctata (Sowerby 1908) [=Pleurotoma millepunctata] P66
                `--Turris Batsch 1789 PK11, BK11 [=Pleurotoma Lamarck 1799 BK11, Pleurotomus Blainville 1810 BK11]
                     |  i. s.: T. carlsoni Anderson & Martin 1914 AV03
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ circumsecta Mighels 1845 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ clarkei Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ coronata Mighels 1845 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ coronifer Bellardi 1877 F27
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma crassilabrum’ Mighels 1845 non Reeve 1843 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ crispata De Cristofori & Jan 1832 BW80
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ eritmeta BW80
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ excavata H86a
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ gemmata Hinds 1843 H09
                     |         T. granosa (Helbling 1779) [=Murex granosus] H09
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ haasti [incl. Surcula atractoides] H86b
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ insculpta Mighels 1844 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ micans Mighels 1845 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ murndaliana Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ obnubila Mighels 1845 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ parva Conrad 1830 F27
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ pumila Mighels 1845 J49 (see below for synonymy)
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ renieri Scacchi 1835 BW80
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma reticulata’ Philippi 1844 non Brown 1827 F27
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ sinuosa Mighels 1845 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ todilla Mighels 1845 J49
                     |         ‘Pleurotoma’ torquata Philippi 1844 BW80
                     |--T. (Turris) P66
                     `--T. (Annulaturris Powell 1966) P66
                          |--T. (*A.) amicta (Smith 1877) [=Pleurotoma amicta] P66
                          `--T. (A.) annulata (Reeve 1843) (see below for synonymy) P66

Turridae incertae sedis:
  Unedogemmula BK11
  Coronia P66
  Cryptogemma P66
  Pleuroliria P66
  Eothesbia Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
    `--*E. microtomoides Finlay & Mariwck 1937 P66
  Fusitoma Casey 1904 P66
    `--*F. sipho Casey 1904 P66
  Pyramitoma Martin 1914 P66
    `--*P. puruensis (Martin 1914) [=Pleurotoma (Pyramitoma) puruensis] P66
  Tritonimangilia Martin 1914 P66
    `--*T. varicifera (Martin 1914) [=Mangilia (Tritonimangilia) varicifera] P66
  Varicobela Casey 1904 P66
    `--*V. smithi (Aldrich 1885) [=Strombus smithi] P66
  Parasyngenochilus Long 1981 DK08
    `--P. angustior Long 1981 DK08
  Trypanotopsis Gardner 1945 P66
    `--*T. texana (Gabb 1860) [=Turris texana] P66
  Sinistrella Meyer 1887 P66
    `--*S. americana (Aldrich 1885) [=Triforis americanus, Trypanotoma americana] P66
  Echinoturris Powell 1942 P66
    `--E. finlayi (Powell 1935) [=Turris finlayi] P66
  Decollidrillia Habe & Ito 1965 BK11
    `--*D. nigra Habe & Ito 1965 P66
  Nekewis Stewart 1926 P66
    |--*N. washingtoniana (Weaver 1912) [=Fasciolaria washingtoniana] P66
    `--N. io (Gabb 1864) (see below for synonymy) P66
  Campylacrum Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
    |--*C. sanum Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
    `--C. debile Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
  Hemipleurotoma Cossmann 1889 P66
    |--*H. archimedis (Bellardi 1878) [=Pleurotoma archimedis] P66
    `--H. denticula (Basterot 1825) [=Pleurotoma denticula] P66
  Epidirella Iredale 1913 [=Austrogemmula Laseron 1954] BK11
    |--E. xanthophaes (Watson 1886) (see below for synonymy) P66
    `--E. sayceana (Chapman 1912) [=Pleurotoma sayceana] P66
  Heteroterma Gabb 1868 P66
    |--*H. trochoidea Gabb 1868 P66
    |--‘Cominella’ praecursor Wilckens 1907 P66
    `--H. zelandica Marshall 1917 P66
  Hesperiturris Gardner 1945 P66
    |--*H. nodocarinata (Gabb 1860) [=Turris nodocarinata] P66
    |--H. amichel Gardner 1945 P66
    `--H. zacatensis Gardner 1945 P66
  Zexilia Finlay 1927 P66
    |--*Z. waihaoensis (Suter 1917) [=Exilia waihaoensis] P66
    |--Z. cingulata [=Latirofusus cingulatus] F27
    |--Z. crassicostata [=Exilia crassicostata] F27
    `--Z. dalli (Suter 1915) [=Exilia dalli] F27
  Eoturris Finlay & Marwick 1937 P66
    |--*E. complicatus (Suter 1917) [=Turris complicatus] P66
    |--E. multicinctus (Marshall 1917) [=Turris multicinctus] P66
    |--E. neglectus (Suter 1917) P66 (see below for synonymy)
    `--E. uttleyi (Suter 1917) [=Turris uttleyi] P66
  Optoturris Powell 1944 P66
    |--*O. optata (Harris 1897) [=Pleurotoma optata] P66
    |--O. edita Powell 1944 P66
    |--O. kyushuensis Shuto 1961 P66
    `--O. paracantha (Tenison-Woods 1877) [=Pleurotoma paracantha] P66
  Kuroshioturris Shuto 1961 BK11
    |--*K. hyugaensis Shuto 1961 [=Gemmula (*Kuroshioturris) hyugaensis, Ptychosyrinx (*K.) hyugaensis] P66
    |--K. asukana (Yokoyama 1926) [=Drillia asukana, Ptychosyrinx (Kuroshioturris) asukana] P66
    |--K. nipponica (Shuto 1961) [=Gemmula (Ptychosyrinx) nipponicus] P66
    `--K. totomiensis (Makiyama 1931) (see below for synonymy) P66
  Epalxis Cossmann 1889 P66
    |--*E. crenulata (Lamarck 1804) [=Pleurotoma crenulata] P66
    |--E. bilirata (Boury 1899) [=Pleurotoma bilirata] P66
    |--E. lemoinei Boury 1899 P66
    |--E. multigyrata (Deshayes 1865) [=Pleurotoma multigyrata] P66
    `--E. ventricosa (Lamarck 1804) P66 [=Pleurotoma ventricosa P66, Drillia ventricosa H09]
  Exilia Conrad 1860 P66
    |--*E. pergracilis Conrad 1860 P66
    |--E. diaboli (Gabb 1864) [=Fusus diaboli] P66
    |--E. fausta Anderson & Hanna 1925 P66
    |--E. kelseyi Dall 1908 O27
    |--E. microptygma (Gabb 1864) [=Cordieria microptygma] P66
    `--E. rectirostris Carpenter 1865 O27
  Eopleurotoma Cossmann 1889 [incl. Eodrillia Casey 1904] P66
    |--E. (Eopleurotoma) P66
    `--E. (Oxyacrum Cossmann 1889) P66
         |--E. (*O.) obliterata (Deshayes 1834) [=Pleurotoma obliterata] P66
         |--E. (O.) constricta (Edwards 1861) [=Pleurotoma constricta] P66
         |--E. (O.) inflexa (Lamarck 1804) [=Pleurotoma inflexa] P66
         `--E. (O.) lepta (Edwards 1861) P66
  Veruturris Powell 1944 P66
    |--V. (Veruturris) P66
    |    |--*V. (V.) quadricarinata (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) quadricarinatus] P66
    |    |--V. (V.) bisculpta (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) bisculptus] P66
    |    |--V. (V.) cochleata (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) cochleatus] P66
    |    |--V. (V.) subconcava (Harris 1897) [=Pleurotoma subconcava] P66
    |    `--V. (V.) tomopleuroides (Powell 1944) [=Xenuroturris (V.) tomopleuroides] P66
    `--V. (Cinguliturris Powell 1964) P66
         `--V. (*C.) tatei (Cossmann 1896) [=Asthenotoma tatei] P66
  Ptychosyrinx Thiele 1925 [incl. Bathybermudia Haas 1949] P66
    |--*P. bisinuata (Martens 1901) [=Pleurotoma (Subulata) bisinuata] P66
    |--P. carynae (Haas 1949) [=*Bathybermudia carynae] P66
    |--P. chilensis Berry 1968 BK11
    |--P. lobata (Sowerby 1903) [=Pleurotoma (Surcula) lobata] P66
    |--P. timorensis (Tesch 1915) [=Pleurotoma timorensis] P66
    |    |--P. t. timorensis P66
    |    `--P. t. teschi Powell 1964 P66
    `--P. truncata (Schepman 1913) [=Pleurotoma truncata] P66
  Trypanotoma Cossmann 1896 P66
    |--*T. terebriformis (Meyer 1886) [=Pleurotoma terebriformis] P66
    |    |--T. t. terebriformis P66
    |    |--T. t. cooperi Harris 1937 P66
    |    `--T. t. curta Harris 1937 P66
    |--T. carlottae (Harris 1899) [=Pleurotoma carlottae] P66
    |--T. longispira Casey 1904 P66
    |--T. melanella Harris 1937 P66
    |--T. obtusa Casey 1904 P66
    `--T. stocki (Dickerson 1916) [=Turris stocki] P66
  Corinnaeturris Bouchet & Waren 1980 BW80
    `--*C. leucomata (Dall 1881) (see below for synonymy) BW80

*Corinnaeturris leucomata (Dall 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Drillia) leucomata; incl. P. dalli Bush 1893 non Verrill & Smith 1882, P. joubini Dautzenberg & Fischer 1906, P. projecticium Locard 1897] BW80

Eoturris neglectus (Suter 1917) P66 [=Turris neglectus nec Lesson 1837 (not preoc. as in homonymous genera) nec Pleurotoma neglecta Reeve 1842 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) P66, T. insensus Finlay 1924 F27, Gemmula insensa F27]

Epidirella xanthophaes (Watson 1886) [=Pleurotoma xanthophaes; incl. Hemipleurotoma tasmanica May 1911, *Austrogemmula tasmanica, *Epidirella tasmanica] P66

Gemmula (Pinguigemmula) thielei Finlay 1930 [incl. Pleurotoma (Gemmula) fusiformis Thiele 1925 nec Pl. fusiforme Requien 1848 nec Pl. nebula fusiforme Marshall 1893] P66

Kuroshioturris totomiensis (Makiyama 1931) [=Turris (Gemmula) totomiensis, Ptychosyrinx (Kuroshioturris) totomiensis] P66

Nekewis io (Gabb 1864) [=Fasciolaria io; incl. Surcula alizensis Anderson & Hanna 1925, S. ioformis Anderson & Hanna 1925] P66

‘Pleurotoma’ pumila Mighels 1845 J49 [incl. P. reticulata Garrett 1857 nec Brown 1827 nec Philippi 1844 F27]

Turris (Annulaturris) annulata (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma annulata; incl. P. fagina Adams & Reeve 1850] P66

*Type species of generic name indicated


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