Tumulitermes soldiers, copyright Melinda Hillery.

Belongs within: Termitinae.
Contains: Eutermes, Nasutitermes, Bulbitermes.

The Nasutitermitinae, nasute termites, are a distinct group of termites in which the head capsule of the soldier caste has an enlarged frontal gland and the fontanelle placed on a protruding rostrum, allowing the ejection of defensive chemicals at threats to the colony. The development of the rostrum is correlated with the reduction of the mandibles which are usually non-functional in the soldiers. The mandibles retain sharp points in the basal genera Angularitermes and Mimeutermes (Ahmad 1950). Members of the African genera Mimeutermes and Postsubulitermes feed on humus, presumably digesting the decomposed vegetable matter it contains.

<==Nasutitermitinae [Nasutitermitidae]
    |--+--Angularitermes nasutissimus IVE07, A50
    |  |--Mimeutermes giffardii A50
    |  `--Postsubulitermes parviconstrictus IVE07
    `--+--+--Cyranotermes caete IVE07
       |  |--Atlantitermes oculatissimus IVE07
       |  |--Obtusitermes panamae IVE07, A50
       |  |--Coatitermes kartaboensis IVE07
       |  `--+--Velocitermes IVE07
       |     |    |--V. beebei S57
       |     |    `--V. heteropterus [=Eutermes heteropterus] S57
       |     `--+--Convexitermes manni A50
       |        `--Subulitermes IVE07
       |             |--*S. microsoma A50 [=Nasutitermes microsoma S57]
       |             |--S. baileyi IVE07
       |             |--S. oculatissimus A50
       |             `--S. undecimus RD77
       `--+--+--Fulleritermes coatoni IVE07
          |  `--+--Leptomyxotermes doriae IVE07
          |     `--Rhadinotermes coarctus IVE07
          `--+--+--Oriensubulitermes inanis IVE07
             |  `--+--‘Nasutitermes’ longinasus IVE07
             |     `--Havilanditermes IVE07
             |          |--H. atripennis A50
             |          `--H. proatripennis IVE07
             `--+--Nasutitermes IVE07
                |--Leucopitermes leucops IVE07
                |--+--Aciculitermes maymyoensis IVE07
                |  `--Malaysiotermes spinocephalus IVE07
                |--+--Australitermes IVE07
                |  |    |--A. dilucidus WG91
                |  |    |--A. insignitus [=Termes insignitus] WG91
                |  |    `--A. perlevis [=Macrosubulitermes perlevis] WG91
                |  `--+--+--Eutermellus convergens A50
                |     |  `--Occasitermes IVE07
                |     |       |--O. occasus (Silvestri 1909) [=Eutermes (Occasitermes) occasus] H42
                |     |       `--O. watsoni WG91
                |     `--Tumulitermes IVE07
                |          |  i. s.: T. peracutus (Hill 1925) J13
                |          |         T. recalvus WG91
                |          |--T. westraliensis IVE07
                |          `--+--T. apiocephalus (Silvestri 1909) IVE07, H42 (see below for synonymy)
                |             `--+--T. hastilis (Froggatt 1898) IVE07, J13
                |                `--‘Nasutitermes’ eucalypti (Mjöberg 1920) IVE07, J13
                `--+--Bulbitermes IVE07
                   `--+--Constrictotermes S57
                      |    |--C. cavifrons S57
                      |    `--C. cyphergaster S57
                      `--+--Lacessititermes IVE07
                         |    |--L. batavus A50
                         |    `--L. laborator S57
                         `--+--Longipeditermes longipes IVE07
                            `--Hospitalitermes IVE07
                                 |--H. asahinai SVT04
                                 |--H. ataramensis SVT04
                                 |--H. bicolor SVT04
                                 |--H. birmanicus SVT04
                                 |--H. butteli [=Eutermes butteli] S57
                                 |--H. hospitalis A50
                                 |--H. jepsoni SVT04
                                 |--H. medioflavus SVT04
                                 `--H. monoceros IVE07

Nasutitermitinae incertae sedis:
  Eutermes H42
  Macrosubulitermes greavesi WG91
  Occultitermes WG91
    |--O. aridus WG91
    `--O. occultus WG91
  Diversitermes diversimilis [=Nasutitermes diversimiles] S57
  Triacitermes triacifer A50
  Rhynchotermes nasutissimus A50
  Hirtitermes spinocephalus A50
  Grallatotermes A50
    |--G. africanus S57
    `--G. splendidus A50
  Rotunditermes rotundiceps A50
  Parvitermes A50
    |--P. discolor A50
    `--P. pallidiceps A50

Tumulitermes apiocephalus (Silvestri 1909) IVE07, H42 [=Eutermes apiocephalus H42; incl. E. (Tumulitermes) aagaardi Mjöberg 1920 H42]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A50] Ahmad, M. 1950. The phylogeny of termite genera based on imago-worker mandibles. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 95 (2): 37–86.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[IVE07] Inward, D. J. G., A. P. Vogler & P. Eggleton. 2007. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of termites (Isoptera) illuminates key aspects of their evolutionary biology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 953–967.

[J13] Jones, D. T. 2013. The termites of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 241–244.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S57] Seevers, C. H. 1957. A monograph on the termitophilous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). Fieldiana Zoology 40: 1–334.

[SVT04] Sornnuwat, Y., C. Vongkaluang & Y. Takematsu. 2004. A systematic key to termites of Thailand. Kasetsart Journal of Natural Science 38 (3): 349–368.

[WG91] Watson, J. A. L., & F. J. Gay. 1991. Isoptera (termites). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 330–347. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Last updated: 21 May 2022.

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