Nasutitermitinae

Tumulitermes soldiers, copyright Melinda Hillery.


Belongs within: Termitinae.
Contains: Eutermes, Nasutitermes.

The Nasutitermitinae, nasute termites, are a distinct group of termites in which the head capsule of the soldier caste has an enlarged frontal gland and the fontanelle placed on a protruding rostrum, allowing the ejection of defensive chemicals at threats to the colony. The development of the rostrum is correlated with the reduction of the mandibles which are usually non-functional in the soldiers. The mandibles retain sharp points in the basal genera Angularitermes and Mimeutermes (Ahmad 1950).

<==Nasutitermitinae [Nasutitermitidae]
    |--+--Angularitermes nasutissimus IVE07, A50
    |  |--Mimeutermes giffardii A50
    |  `--Postsubulitermes parviconstrictus IVE07
    `--+--+--+--+--Convexitermes manni A50
       |  |  |  `--Subulitermes IVE07
       |  |  |       |--*S. microsoma A50 [=Nasutitermes microsoma S57]
       |  |  |       |--S. baileyi IVE07
       |  |  |       `--S. oculatissimus A50
       |  |  `--Velocitermes IVE07
       |  |       |--V. beebei S57
       |  |       `--V. heteropterus [=Eutermes heteropterus] S57
       |  |--Cyranotermes caete IVE07
       |  |--Atlantitermes oculatissimus IVE07
       |  |--Obtusitermes panamae IVE07, A50
       |  `--Coatitermes kartaboensis IVE07
       `--+--+--Fulleritermes coatoni IVE07
          |  `--+--Leptomyxotermes doriae IVE07
          |     `--Rhadinotermes coarctus IVE07
          `--+--+--Oriensubulitermes inanis IVE07
             |  `--+--‘Nasutitermes’ longinasus IVE07
             |     `--Havilanditermes IVE07
             |          |--H. atripennis A50
             |          `--H. proatripennis IVE07
             `--+--+--Bulbitermes IVE07
                |  |    |  i. s.: B. constrictoides [=Eutermes constrictoides] S57
                |  |    |         B. constrictus A50
                |  |    |         B. singaporiensis S57
                |  |    |--B. prabhae IVE07
                |  |    `--+--B. sarawakensis IVE07
                |  |       `--+--Ceylonitermes escherichi IVE07
                |  |          `--Tenuirostritermes S57
                |  |               |--T. cinereus S57
                |  |               `--T. tenuirostris S57
                |  `--+--Constrictotermes A50
                |     |    |--C. cavifrons S57
                |     |    `--C. cyphergaster S57
                |     `--+--Lacessititermes IVE07
                |        |    |--L. batavus A50
                |        |    `--L. laborator S57
                |        `--+--Longipeditermes longipes IVE07
                |           `--Hospitalitermes IVE07
                |                |--H. butteli [=Eutermes butteli] S57
                |                |--H. hospitalis A50
                |                `--H. monoceros IVE07
                |--+--Aciculitermes maymyoensis IVE07
                |  `--Malaysiotermes spinocephalus IVE07
                |--Nasutitermes IVE07
                |--Leucopitermes leucops IVE07
                `--+--Australitermes IVE07
                   |    |--A. dilucidus WG91
                   |    |--A. insignitus [=Termes insignitus] WG91
                   |    `--A. perlevis [=Macrosubulitermes perlevis] WG91
                   `--+--+--Eutermellus convergens A50
                      |  `--Occasitermes IVE07
                      |       |--O. occasus (Silvestri 1909) [=Eutermes (Occasitermes) occasus] H42
                      |       `--O. watsoni WG91
                      `--Tumulitermes IVE07
                           |  i. s.: T. peracutus (Hill 1925) J13
                           |         T. recalvus WG91
                           |--T. westraliensis IVE07
                           `--+--T. apiocephalus (Silvestri 1909) IVE07, H42 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--+--T. hastilis (Froggatt 1898) IVE07, J13
                                 `--‘Nasutitermes’ eucalypti (Mjöberg 1920) IVE07, J13

Nasutitermitinae incertae sedis:
  Eutermes H42
  Macrosubulitermes greavesi M91
  Occultitermes WG91
    |--O. aridus WG91
    `--O. occultus WG91
  Diversitermes diversimilis [=Nasutitermes diversimiles] S57
  Triacitermes triacifer A50
  Rhynchotermes nasutissimus A50
  Hirtitermes spinocephalus A50
  Grallatotermes A50
    |--G. africanus S57
    `--G. splendidus A50
  Rotunditermes rotundiceps A50
  Parvitermes A50
    |--P. discolor A50
    `--P. pallidiceps A50

Tumulitermes apiocephalus (Silvestri 1909) IVE07, H42 [=Eutermes apiocephalus H42; incl. E. (Tumulitermes) aagaardi Mjöberg 1920 H42]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A50] Ahmad, M. 1950. The phylogeny of termite genera based on imago-worker mandibles. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 95 (2): 37–86.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[IVE07] Inward, D. J. G., A. P. Vogler & P. Eggleton. 2007. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of termites (Isoptera) illuminates key aspects of their evolutionary biology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 953–967.

[J13] Jones, D. T. 2013. The termites of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 241–244.

[M91] Miller, L. R. 1991. A revision of the Termes-Capritermes branch of the Termitinae in Australia (Isoptera: Termitidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 1147–1282.

[S57] Seevers, C. H. 1957. A monograph on the termitophilous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). Fieldiana Zoology 40: 1–334.

[WG91] Watson, J. A. L., & F. J. Gay. 1991. Isoptera (termites). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 330–347. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Last updated: 10 April 2017.

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