Koch's sandgroper Cylindraustralia kochii, photographed by Terry Houston.

Belongs within: Caelifera.

The Tridactyloidea are a group of burrowing, cricket-like orthopterans characterised by tarsi with two segments in the fore and mid legs, and only a single segment (if tarsi are present at all) in the hind legs (Rentz 1996).

    |--Rhipipteryx R18 [Rhipipterygidae GE05]
    |    `--R. circumcincta Saussure 1874 R18
    |--Cylindrachetidae [Oryttica] GE05
    |    |--Cylindroryctes spegazzinii R96
    |    |--Cylindracheta R96
    |    |    |--C. campbelli R96
    |    |    |--C. kochii R96
    |    |    `--C. psammophila R91
    |    `--Cylindraustralia R96
    |         |--C. acuta R96
    |         |--C. arenivaga R96
    |         |--C. cookensis R96
    |         |--C. divisa R96
    |         |--C. granulata R96
    |         |--C. karumbensis R96
    |         |--C. kochii R96
    |         |--C. parakochia R96
    |         |--C. parvitarsata R96
    |         |--C. setosa R96
    |         |--C. tindalei R96
    |         `--C. ustulata R96
    `--Tridactylidae TW05
         |  i. s.: Monodactylus dolichopterus GR02
         |         Mongoloxya ponomarenkoi GR02
         |         Ellipes TW05
         |           |--E. gurneyi K02
         |           `--E. minutus TW05
         |         Cratodactylus ferreirai Martins-Neto 1990 RJ93
         |--Dentridactylus [Dentridactylinae] R96
         |    |--D. albosignatus R96
         |    `--D. keyi R96
         `--Tridactylinae R96
              |--Tridactylus R96
              |    |--T. australicus R96
              |    |--T. mutus R96
              |    `--T. paradoxus L02
              `--Xya R96
                   |--X. muta R96
                   |--X. nautarrae R96
                   |--X. nitobae R96
                   |--X. pseudomuta R96
                   |--X. smithersi R96
                   `--X. unicolor R96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K02] Katovich, K. 2002. Heteroceridae MacLeay 1825. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 127–132. CRC Press.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

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