Neocarus texanus, copyright Robert Deans.

Belongs within: Arachnida.
Contains: Mesostigmata, Argasidae, Ixodidae.

The Parasitiformes are a group of usually well-sclerotised mites, many species of which are predatory or otherwise feeders on animal matter (scavengers or parasites). They are characterised by having the respiratory openings at the side of the body, close to the hind pairs of legs; four pairs of dorsolateral stigmata are present in Opilioacaridae but a single ventrolateral pair is present in other Parasitiformes. Earlier authors often treated the Opilioacaridae as the sister taxon to Parasitiformes rather than a member of the Parasitiformes proper, but they are commonly included by recent authors.

Opilioacarids are relatively large, long-legged mites with a leathery integument known from tropical and warm temperate parts of the world. The prodorsum bears two or three pairs of lateral ocelli whereas at most one pair is present in other Parasitiformes, and the opisthosoma bears indications of the ancestral segmentation. The Parasitiformes also include the ticks, Ixodida, very large mites with the hypostome modified into a piercing organ with rear-facing teeth, in order to be able to feed on blood from vertebrate hosts. The majority of ticks are divided between the two families Argasidae (soft ticks) and Ixodidae (hard ticks); the African species Nuttalliella namaqua is placed in its own monotypic family characterised by possession of a leathery papillate podonotal pseudoscutum (Keirans 2009). The Holothyrida are large, heavily sclerotised mites with a relictual distribution in South and Central America and Australasia. Members of the family Neothyridae are found in the Americas whereas Allothyridae and Holothyridae are found in Australasia; Holothyridae are also found on islands in the Indian Ocean (Walter 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009a): One to four pairs of ventrolateral stigmata posterior to coxae II; coxae of legs free, usually movable; tarsi of legs II-IV with peripodomeric fissure associated with slit organs; tarsus of leg I with dense dorsal cluster of solenidiform setae subdistally (may be further elaborated into receptor organ complexes). Excluding Opilioacaridae: Tarsus of palp without terminal claws, at most with a tined clawlike structure on inner basal surface; trochanters III and IV undivided; opisthosoma with one pair of ventrolateral stigmata in region lateral to coxae II-IV or posterior to coxae IV; anus ventral or ventro-subterminal.

<==Parasitiformes [Anactinochaeta, Anactinochitinosi, Anactinotrichida, Gamasiformes, Parastigmata] WH09
    |--Opilioacaridae [Notostigmata, Opilioacarida, Opilioacariformes, Opilioacarina, Opilioacaroidea] WH09
    |    |  i. s.: Phalangiacarus brosseti WH09, WP99
    |    |         Panchaetes WH09
    |    |         Salfacarus WH09
    |    |         Adenacarus arabicus WH09
    |    |         Vanderhammenacarus WH09
    |    |         Gibocellum Stecker 1876 [Gibocellinae] K18
    |    |           `--*G. sudeticum Stecker 1876 K18
    |    |         Neocarus texanus (Chamberlin & Mulaik 1942) WH09, PL17 [=Opilioacarus texanus PL17]
    |    |--+--Paracarus Chamberlin & Mulaik 1942 H02
    |    |  |    `--P. hexophthalmus WH09
    |    |  `--Siamacarus Leclerc 1989 H02
    |    |       `--S. withi S07
    |    `--+--Eucarus With 1904 H02
    |       |    |--E. arabicus With 1904 H02 [=Opilioacarus arabicus S04]
    |       |    `--E. italicus With 1904 H02 [=Opilioacarus italicus S04]
    |       `--Opilioacarus With 1902 H02
    |            |--O. platensis Silvestri 1904 S04
    |            `--O. segmentatus With 1902 [=Eucarus segmentatus] H02
    `--Archicotylea AL37
         |--Mesostigmata W07
         `--+--Ixodida [Ixodoidea, Metastigmata] W07
            |    |  i. s.: Alveonasus lahorensis (Neumann 1908) K91
            |    |--Argasidae K09
            |    |--Ixodidae K09
            |    `--Nuttalliella Bedford 1931 AL37 [Nuttalliellidae K09]
            |         `--*N. namaqua Bedford 1931 AL37
            `--Holothyrida [Holothyriformes, Holothyrina, Holothyroidea, Tetrastigmata] W07
                 |  i. s.: Haplothyrus W09
                 |         Leiothyrus W09
                 |--Allothyridae W09
                 |    |--Australothyrus van der Hammen 1983 H98
                 |    |    `--A. ocellatus Hammen 1983 L91
                 |    `--Allothyrus Womersley 1961 H98
                 |         |--A. australasiae (Womersley 1935) [=Holothyrus australasiae] H98
                 |         `--A. constrictus (Domrow 1955) [=Holothyrus constrictus] H98
                 `--+--Neothyrus [Neothyridae] W09
                    |    `--N. ana W09
                    `--Holothyridae W09
                         |--Holothyrus coccinella W09
                         |--Sternothyrus braueri DW10
                         |--Lindothyrus W09
                         |--Thonius braueri W09, B86
                         `--Hammenius W09

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[B86] Bernini, F. 1986. Current ideas on the phylogeny and the adaptive radiations of Acarida. Bolletino di Zoologia 53: 279–313.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H02] Harvey, M. S. 2002. The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 357–372.

[K09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 111–123. Texas Tech University Press.

[K91] Kryuchechnikov, V. N. 1991. Protective responses of Ixodoidea hemocytes. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 331–334. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[L91] Lehtinen, P. T. 1991. Phylogeny and zoogeography of the Holothyrida. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 101–113. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PL17] Pachl, P., A. C. Lindl, A. Krause, S. Scheu, I. Schaefer & M. Maraun. 2017. The tropics as an ancient cradle of oribatid mite diversity. Acarologia 57 (2): 309–322.

[S07] Shultz, J. W. 2007. A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150 (2): 221–265.

[S04] Silvestri, F. 1904. Note Aracnologiche I–III. Redia 2: 239–261.

[W07] Walter, D. E. 2007. A plethora of questions, but only a modicum of answers: Australian Parasitiformes of tropical forests. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 51–57. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[W09] Walter, D. E. 2009. Order Holothyrida (Holothyrina, Tetrastigmata). In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 107–110. Texas Tech University Press.

[WH09] Walter, D. E., & M. S. Harvey. 2009. Order Opilioacarida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 104–106. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Last updated: 14 March 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS