Parasitiformes

Venter (left) and dorsum of Heatherella acanthocharis, from here.


Belongs within: Arachnida.
Contains: Opilioacaridae, Argasidae, Ixodidae, Sejoidea, Trigynaspida, Gamasina, Uropodina.

The Parasitiformes are a group of usually well-sclerotised mites, many species of which are predatory or otherwise feeders on animal matter (scavengers or parasites). They are characterised by having the respiratory openings at the side of the body, close to the hind pairs of legs. Lindquist et al. (2009a) expanded the Parasitiformes to include the Opilioacaridae, commonly treated as the sister taxon to Parasitiformes by other authors. The majority of Parasitiformes are included in the Gamasida or Mesostigmata, in which the body often has well-developed dorsal and ventral shields. The gamasidans are also often characterised by a well-developed tritosternum arising behind the gnathosoma, bearing one to three elongate laciniae, that functions together with the underside of the gnathosoma to form a fluid transport mechanism (Lindquist et al. 2009b). The Parasitiformes also include the ticks, Ixodidae, very large mites with the hypostome modified into a piercing organ with rear-facing teeth, in order to be able to feed on blood from vertebrate hosts.

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009a): One to four pairs of ventrolateral stigmata posterior to coxae II; coxae of legs free, usually movable; tarsi of legs II-IV with peripodomeric fissure associated with slit organs; tarsus of leg I with dense dorsal cluster of solenidiform setae subdistally (may be further elaborated into receptor organ complexes). Excluding Opilioacaridae: Tarsus of palp without terminal claws, at most with a tined clawlike structure on inner basal surface; trochanters III and IV undivided; opisthosoma with one pair of ventrolateral stigmata in region lateral to coxae II-IV or posterior to coxae IV; anus ventral or ventro-subterminal.

<==Parasitiformes [Anactinotrichida, Parastigmata] LKW09a
    |  i. s.: Plesiosejus S86
    |--Opilioacaridae S07
    `--+--Ixodida [Ixodoidea] L91
       |    |  i. s.: Alveonasus lahorensis (Neumann 1908) K91
       |    |--Argasidae S07
       |    |--Ixodidae S07
       |    `--Nuttalliella [Nuttalliellidae] K09
       |         `--N. namaqua K09
       `--+--Holothyrida [Holothyrina, Holothyroidea, Tetrastigmata] L91
          |    |  i. s.: Haplothyrus W09
          |    |         Leiothyrus W09
          |    |--Allothyridae L91
          |    |    |--Allothyrus constrictus S07
          |    |    `--Australothyrus ocellatus Hammen 1983 W09, L91
          |    `--+--Neothyrus W09 [Neothyridae L91]
          |       |    `--N. ana W09
          |       `--Holothyridae L91
          |            |--Holothyrus coccinella L91
          |            |--Sternothyrus braueri DW10
          |            |--Lindothyrus W09
          |            |--Thonius W09
          |            `--Hammenius W09
          `--Gamasida [Gamasini, Gamasoidea, Mesostigmata] L91
               |  i. s.: Paraamblyseius W01
               |         Caliphis W01
               |         Streptolaelaps heteromys Furman 1955 QV01
               |         ‘Acarus’ coleoptratorum Linnaeus 1758 [incl. A. parasitus Latreille 1795] S61
               |         Willmannia sejiformis QA91
               |         Tricholaelaps myonysognathus Grochovskaya & Mguen-Xuan-Hoe 1961 MZ91
               |         Echinolaelaps echidninus WP99
               |         Trigonuropoda [Trigonuropodidae] DW10
               |         Spelaeorhynchus [Spelaeorhynchidae] LKW09b
               |           `--S. praecursor LKW09b
               |         ‘Nicoletia’ Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 non Gervais 1842 CF77
               |           `--*N. cornuta Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 CF77
               |         ‘Acarus’ denticulatus (n. d.) CF77
               |         Trachynotus CF77
               |           |--T. cadaverinus S22
               |           |--T. pyriformis CF77
               |           `--T. troguloides [incl. T. elongatus] CF77
               |--Sejoidea L91
               `--+--Trigynaspida L91
                  `--Monogynaspida [Monogynaspides] L91
                       |--Gamasina KA90
                       |--Uropodina KA90
                       |--Heatherella WP99 [Heatherellidae, Heatherellina LKW09a, Heatherelloidea]
                       |    |--H. acanthocharis LKW09b
                       |    `--H. callimaulos WP99
                       |--Microgynioidea [Microgyniina] LKW09b
                       |    |--Nothogynus [Nothogyniidae] LKW09b
                       |    |    `--N. klompeni LKW09b
                       |    `--Microgyniidae LKW09b
                       |         |--Microgynium incisum KA90
                       |         `--Microsejus truncicola LKW09b
                       `--Heterozerconoidea [Heterozerconina] LKW09a
                            |--Discozerconidae LKW09b
                            |    |--Discomegistus pectinatus LKW09b
                            |    `--Discozercon mirabilis LKW09b
                            `--Heterozerconidae LKW09b
                                 |--Heterozercon latus LKW09b
                                 |--Afroheterozercon ancoratus LKW09b
                                 |--Amheterozercon amphisbaenae [=Zeterohercon amphisbaenae] LKW09b
                                 `--Narceoheterozercon ohioensis LKW09b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[K09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 111-123. Texas Tech University Press.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583-665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K91] Kryuchechnikov, V. N. 1991. Protective responses of Ixodoidea hemocytes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 331-334. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[L91] Lehtinen, P. T. 1991. Phylogeny and zoogeography of the Holothyrida. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 101-113. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09a] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009a. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 97-103. Texas Tech University Press.

[LKW09b] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009b. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

[MZ91] Meng Y.-C., Zhuge H.-X., Lan M.-Y. & Zhou H.-F. 1991. Experimental study on transmission of haemorrhagic fever with remal syndrome virus by mites, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 35-39. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QA91] Quintero, M. T., & H. A. Acevedo. 1991. Studies on deep litter mites on farms in Mexico. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 443-448. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QV01] Quintero, M. M. T., M. Vargas, B. S. Hernández, P García & N. J. Otero. 2001. Ectoparasitic mites on Heteromys gaumeri in the south of Yucatan, Mexico. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 583-585. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23-112, 4 pls.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 652-696. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S07] Shultz, J. W. 2007. A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150 (2): 221-265.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367-610.

[W01] Walter, D. E. 2001. Achilles and the mite: Zeno’s paradox and rainforest mite diversity. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 113-120. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[W09] Walter, D. E. 2009. Order Holothyrida (Holothyrina, Tetrastigmata). In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 107-110. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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