Laurestine Viburnum tinus, copyright Retama.

Belongs within: Campanulidae.
Contains: Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacaceae, Valerianaceae.

The Dipsacales are a clade of plants usually with opposite, gland-toothed leaves and flowers borne in cymose inflorescences. Members of the family Adoxaceae have fruit which are drupes, and include the elder Sambucus nigra whose fruit are used for flavouring drinks and other culinary purposes.

Characters (from mobot.org): Route I secoiridoids present; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundles arcuate; colleters absent; buds perulate; leaves opposite, margins gland-toothed, bases more or less confluent; inflorescence with terminal flowers, branches cymose; pollen grains tricellular; gynoecium with three connate carpels, at least partly inferior; ovules apotropous; fruit indehiscent, wall with fibrous layers perpendicular to each other and thick walled sclereids, containing crystals, calyx persistent; testa vascularized, exotestal cells enlarged, cuboid/rectangular, variously thickened and lignified, seed coat 1-21 μm across; endosperm without haustoria, cells thin-walled, not differentiated.

    |  i. s.: Morinaceae T00
    |           |--Acanthocalyx T00
    |           |--Cryptothladia T00
    |           `--Morina T00
    |                |--M. longifolia O88
    |                |--M. nepalensis O88
    |                `--M. polyphylla O88
    |--+--Caprifoliaceae K03
    |  `--+--+--Dipsacaceae K03
    |     |  `--Valerianaceae K03
    |     `--Linnaeaceae K03
    |          |--Linnaea borealis C55
    |          |    |--L. b. var. borealis H93
    |          |    `--L. b. var. longiflora H93
    |          `--Abelia K03
    |               |--A. grandiflora K03
    |               `--A. triflora K03
    `--Adoxaceae [Viburnaceae] K03
         |--Viburnum K03 [Opuloideae T00, Viburnoideae]
         |    |--V. acerifolium K03
         |    |--V. awabuki MH98
         |    |--V. ellipticum H93
         |    |--V. erubescens D07
         |    |--V. mullaha O88
         |    |    |--V. m. var. mullaha O88
         |    |    `--V. m. var. glabrescens O88
         |    |--V. opulus K03
         |    |--V. sargentii K03
         |    |--V. taitoense CP02
         |    `--V. tinus BR65
         `--Adoxoideae T00
              |--Adoxa moschatellina N77
              `--Sambucus T00
                   |--S. canadensis K03
                   |--S. cerulea B14
                   |--S. ebulus R-CT01
                   |--S. gaudichaudiana BR65
                   |--S. melanocarpa H93
                   |--S. mexicanus RJ11
                   |--S. nigra BR65
                   |--S. racemosa K03
                   |    |--S. r. var. racemosa H93
                   |    `--S. r. var. microbotrys H93
                   `--S. sieboldiana LO98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[N77] Niedbała, W. 1977. Badania biocenotyczne nad mechowcami (Acari, Oribatei) Masywu Ślęży. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią, Seria C—Zoologia 30: 47–73.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

Last updated: 15 November 2018.

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