Laurestine Viburnum tinus, copyright Retama.

Belongs within: Campanulidae.
Contains: Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacaceae, Valerianaceae.

The Dipsacales are a clade of plants usually with opposite, gland-toothed leaves and flowers borne in cymose inflorescences.

Characters (from mobot.org): Route I secoiridoids present; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundles arcuate; colleters absent; buds perulate; leaves opposite, margins gland-toothed, bases more or less confluent; inflorescence with terminal flowers, branches cymose; pollen grains tricellular; gynoecium with three connate carpels, at least partly inferior; ovules apotropous; fruit indehiscent, wall with fibrous layers perpendicular to each other and thick walled sclereids, containing crystals, calyx persistent; testa vascularized, exotestal cells enlarged, cuboid/rectangular, variously thickened and lignified, seed coat 1-21 μm across; endosperm without haustoria, cells thin-walled, not differentiated.

    |  i. s.: Morinaceae T00
    |           |--Acanthocalyx T00
    |           |--Cryptothladia T00
    |           `--Morina T00
    |                |--M. longifolia O88
    |                |--M. nepalensis O88
    |                `--M. polyphylla O88
    |--+--Caprifoliaceae K03
    |  `--+--+--Dipsacaceae K03
    |     |  `--Valerianaceae K03
    |     `--Linnaeaceae K03
    |          |--Linnaea borealis C55
    |          |    |--L. b. var. borealis H93
    |          |    `--L. b. var. longiflora H93
    |          `--Abelia K03
    |               |--A. grandiflora K03
    |               `--A. triflora K03
    `--Adoxaceae [Viburnaceae] K03
         |--Viburnum K03 [Opuloideae T00, Viburnoideae]
         |    |--V. acerifolium K03
         |    |--V. awabuki MH98
         |    |--V. ellipticum H93
         |    |--V. erubescens D07
         |    |--V. mullaha O88
         |    |    |--V. m. var. mullaha O88
         |    |    `--V. m. var. glabrescens O88
         |    |--V. opulus K03
         |    |--V. sargentii K03
         |    |--V. taitoense CP02
         |    `--V. tinus BR65
         `--Adoxoideae T00
              |--Adoxa moschatellina N77
              `--Sambucus T00
                   |--S. canadensis K03
                   |--S. cerulea B14
                   |--S. ebulus R-CT01
                   |--S. gaudichaudiana BR65
                   |--S. melanocarpa H93
                   |--S. mexicanus RJ11
                   |--S. nigra BR65
                   |--S. racemosa K03
                   |    |--S. r. var. racemosa H93
                   |    `--S. r. var. microbotrys H93
                   `--S. sieboldiana LO98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[N77] Niedbała, W. 1977. Badania biocenotyczne nad mechowcami (Acari, Oribatei) Masywu Ślęży. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią, Seria C—Zoologia 30: 47–73.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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