Cercopis vulnerata, copyright Frank Vassen.

Belongs within: Clypeata.

The Cercopoidea, froghoppers, are a group of plant-sucking bugs with relatively soft-bodied nymphs that live concealed in masses of spittle or calcareous tubes (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Head variously shaped, sometimes narrowly produced anteriorly; antennae anterior to eyes; tentorium complete; paired ocelli, when present, always on the crown. Fore wing usually with short Sc; M usually basally incorporated in the same vein as CuA, never proximally associated with R; base of wing with ventral flange; hind wing with M unbranched. Mid coxae short, not widely separated. Hind coxae short, conical, laterally dilated; hind tibiae short, cylindrical, with one or two strong, lateral spines and flared apical pecten. Nymph bearing a ventral abdominal channel terminating anteriorly near openings of large mesothoracic spiracles.

    |--Procercopoidae GE05
    |--Cercopion RJ93 [Cercopionidae GE05]
    |    `--C. reticulata Hamilton 1990 RJ93
    |--Clastoptera BMW13 [Clastopteridae GE05]
    |    |--C. obtusa E66
    |    `--C. proteus BMW13
    |--Macherotidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Hindoloides appendiculata SS10
    |    |--Machaerota [Machaerotinae] CGW91
    |    |    `--M. finitima CGW91
    |    `--Enderleiniinae CGW91
    |         |--Chaetophyes compacta CGW91
    |         `--Pectinariophyes stalii CGW91
    |--Aphrophoridae [Aphrophorinae] GE05
    |    |--Perinoia speiseri Distant 1914 D14
    |    |--Philagra parva CGW91
    |    |--Bathylus albicinctus CGW91
    |    |--Anyllis leiala CGW91
    |    |--Neophilaenus lineatus RD77
    |    |--Philaenus RD77
    |    |    |--P. leucophthalmus RD77
    |    |    |--P. lineatus E66
    |    |    `--P. spumarius BM76
    |    |--Aphrophora YS01
    |    |    |--A. alni H01
    |    |    |--A. parallela BM76
    |    |    |--A. salicis H01
    |    |    `--A. spumaria RD77
    |    `--Ptyelus RD77
    |         |--P. distinctus Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--P. goudoti RD77
    |         |--P. lineatus H01
    |         `--P. spumarius (see below for synonymy) H01
    `--Cercopidae GE05
         |--Eoscartopis YS01
         |--Aufidus trifasciatus CGW91
         |--Cercopsis vulnerata I92
         |--Lepyronia coleoptrata H01, BMW13
         |--Megastethodon urvillei CGW91
         |--Euryaulax carnifex CGW91
         |--Petyllis deprivata CGW91
         |--Tonnoiria CGW91
         |--Cephisus siccifolius S38
         |--Tomaspis RD77
         |--Eoscarta C91
         |    |--E. assimilis BM76
         |    `--E. carnifex C91
         `--Cercopis B35
              |--C. discolor Boisduval 1835 B35
              |--C. lapeyrousei Boisduval 1835 B35
              |--C. spumaria L02
              |--C. vulnerata RD77
              `--C. xanthorhina Boisduval 1835 B35

Ptyelus spumarius [incl. P. spumarius var. apicalis, P. spumarius var. fasciatus, P. spumarius var. leucocephalus] H01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S38] Snodgrass, R. E. 1938. The loral plates and the hypopharynx of Hemiptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 228–236.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

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