Reconstruction of Permocicada integra, from here.

Belongs within: Hemiptera.
Contains: Fulgoridae, Issidae, Tropiduchidae, Meenoplidae, Dictyopharidae, Delphacidae, Achilidae, Flatidae, Derbidae, Cixiidae, Clypeata.

The Auchenorrhyncha are a diverse clade of plant-feeding bugs characterised by modification of the antennal flagellum into an annulate or segmented arista. The hind legs are often modified for leaping and bear spines on the tibiae. They are divided between the Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) and Cicadomorpha (cicadas and leafhoppers). Fulgoromorpha have the mid coxae elongate and widely separated, and the antennae are ventral to the eyes and bear an enlarged pedicel that is often covered with warty sensilla. Cicadomorpha have the mid coxae short and not widely separated, and antennae are anterior to the eyes and the pedicel is not enlarged (Carver et al. 1991). Stem-group members of the Cicadomorpha are first known from the Permian, with the Prosbolopseidae known from the Early Permian and other groups appearing in the Late Permian (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). The Permian Coleoscytidae are possible predecessors of the Fulgoroidea within the Fulgoromorpha. Families of fulgoroids include the Meenoplidae, characterised by having one or both of the anal veins of the forewing granulate. The Dictyopharidae are medium-sized fulgoroids with rather narrow wings that commonly have the head strongly prolonged anteriorly (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Auchenorrhyncha [Cicadariae, Cicadina] SP02
    |  i. s.: Errastunus ocellaris K09
    |         Stobaera concinna PWP96
    |         Protoprosbole [Protoprosbolidae] RD77
    |           `--P. straeleni Laurentiaux 1952 NR13
    |         Listra lanata G20
    |         Poeciloptera phalaenoides G20
    |--Fulgoromorpha GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Boreocixius K-P91
    |    |         Tricrosbia K-P91
    |    |--Coleoscytidae [Coleoscytoidea] SP02
    |    `--Fulgoroidea SP02
    |         |  i. s.: Surijokocixius K-P91 [Surijokocixiidae SP02]
    |         |         Fulgoridae SP02
    |         |         Issidae SP02
    |         |         Nogodinidae SP02
    |         |           |  i. s.: Salona panorpaeformis CGW91
    |         |           |         Nurunderia chrysopoides CGW91
    |         |           `--Lipocalliini [Lipocalliinae, Nogodininae] FM08
    |         |                |--Lipocallia Kirkaldy 1906 FM08
    |         |                `--Bilbilicallia Jacobi 1928 FM08
    |         |         Kinnaridae RD77
    |         |           |--Bytrois nemoralis RD77
    |         |           `--Oeclidius RH88
    |         |                |--O. antricola RH88
    |         |                |--O. hades RH88
    |         |                `--O. minos RH88
    |         |         Tropiduchidae SP02
    |         |         Tettigometridae E02
    |         |           |--Tetigometra virescens G20
    |         |           `--Phalix titan RD77
    |         |         Meenoplidae RH88
    |         |         Hypochthonella [Hypochthonellidae] RH88
    |         |           `--H. caeca RH88
    |         |         Lalacidae GE05
    |         |           |--Carpopodus difficilis GE05
    |         |           `--Lalax mutabilis Hamilton 1990 RJ93
    |         |         Pyrilla B88
    |         |           |--P. aberrans B88
    |         |           `--P. perpusilla B88
    |         |         Dictyopharidae F05
    |         |         Eurybrachyidae K91
    |         |           |  i. s.: Gelastopsis insignis C91
    |         |           |         Eurybrachys tomentosa RD77
    |         |           `--Platybrachyini [Platybrachinae] CGW91
    |         |                |--Olonia CGW91
    |         |                |--Dardus abbreviatus CGW91, R70b
    |         |                `--Platybrachys K91
    |         |                     |--P. decemmacula K91
    |         |                     |--P. leucostigma C91
    |         |                     `--P. maculipennis CGW91
    |         |         Achilixiidae CGW91
    |         |         Acanaloniidae CGW91
    |         |           |--Acanalonia L88
    |         |           `--Philatis RD77
    |         |         Lophopidae CGW91
    |         |           |--Lophops saccharicida CGW91
    |         |           `--Kasserota CGW91
    |         |         Gengidae CGW91
    |         |           |--Gengis panoplites RD77
    |         |           `--Microeurybrachys vitrifrons RD77
    |         |         Caliscelis RD77 [Caliscelidae FM08]
    |         |         Mundopoides aptianus P92
    |         |--Delphacidae E02
    |         `--+--Achilidae E02
    |            |--Flatidae E02
    |            |--Derbidae E02
    |            |--+--Cixiidae E02
    |            |  `--Valvifulgoria RJ93 [Fulgoridiidae GE05]
    |            |       `--V. tiantungensis Lin 1986 RJ93
    |            `--Ricaniidae E02
    |                 |--Scolypopa australis (Walker 1851) CGW91, H82
    |                 |--Ricania japonica E02
    |                 |--Orosanga YS01
    |                 |--Qiyangiricania cesta Lin 1986 RJ93
    |                 `--Tritophania P92
    `--Cicadomorpha [Prosboloidea] GE05
         |  i. s.: Dysmorphoptiloides elongata K-P91
         |--Prosbolopseidae [Ivaiidae, Mundidae, Prosbolopsidae] SP02
         |    |--Mundus NR13
         |    `--Prosboloneura kondomensis RJ93
         |--Pereborioidea SP02
         |    |--Ignotalidae [Ignatolidae] SP02
         |    |--Scytophara RJ93 [Pereboriidae SP02]
         |    |    `--S. extensa RJ93
         |    `--Curvicubitus RJ93 [Curvicubitidae SP02]
         |         `--C. triassicus Hong 1984 RJ93
         `--+--Dysmorphoptilidae [Dismorphoptilidae, Eoscarterellidae] SP02
            |--Clypeata SP02
            |--Prosbolidae [Cicadopsyllidae, Permocicadopsidae, Permoglyphidae, Sojanoneuridae] SP02
            |    |--Prosbole reducta R70a
            |    |--Permoglyphis belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
            |    |--Sinisbole juvensis Lin 1986 RJ93
            |    `--Permocicada RJ93
            |         |--P. borealis R70a
            |         `--P. integra RJ93
            `--Palaeontinoidea SP02
                 |--Dunstaniidae SP02
                 |--Mesogereon K-P91 [Mesogereonidae SP02]
                 |    `--M. superbum K-P91
                 `--Paleontinidae [Palaeontinidae] GE05
                      |--Pseudocossus SP02
                      |--Fletcheriana triassica Evans 1956 GE05, F71
                      |--Suljuktaja NR13
                      |--Suljuktocossus NR13
                      `--Asiocossus costalis RJ93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E02] Emeljanov, A. F. 2002. Contribution to classification and phylogeny of the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Denisia 2002: 103–112.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[FM08] Fletcher, M. J., & M. L. Moir. 2008. Gunawardenea, a new genus of squat leafhoppers from Western Australia, with description of two new species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 429–436.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[NR13] Nel, A., P. Roques, P. Nel, A. A. Prokin, T. Bourgoin, J. Prokop, J. Szwedo, D. Azar, L. Desutter-Grandcolas, T. Wappler, R. Garrouste, D. Coty, D. Huang, M. S. Engel & A. G. Kirejtshuk. 2013. The earliest known holometabolous insects. Nature 503: 257–261.

[PWP96] Palmer, W. A., B. W. Willson & K. R. Pullen. 1996. The host range of Aconophora compressa Walker (Homoptera: Membracidae): a potential biological control agent for Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 617–624.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RH88] Remane, R., & H. Hoch. 1988. Cave-dwelling Fulguroidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from the Canary Islands. Journal of Natural History 22: 403–412.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70a] Riek, E. F. 1970a. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[R70b] Riek, E. F. 1970b. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 622–635. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 7 May 2022.

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