Diamond dove Geopelia cuneata, photographed by Chris Watson.

Belongs within: Columbidae.
Contains: Treron, Chalcophaps, Turtur, Ducula, Ptilinopus, Gallicolumba.

The Treroninae as recognised herein are a clade of pigeons supported by molecular analysis (Shapiro et al. 2002) found in Africa, Asia and Australasia. The name has been used in the past for the grouping of fruit pigeons and fruit doves (centred around the genera Treron, Ptilinopus and Ducula) but these taxa alone do not form a monophyletic clade. Instead, the green pigeons of the genus Treron may form a clade with the emerald doves Chalcophaps and two African genera, the African wood doves Turtur and the Namaqua dove Oena capensis. Ducula and Ptilinopus form an Indo-Australasian clade with the topknot pigeon Lopholaimus antarcticus, the New Zealand pigeons Hemiphaga and the mountain pigeons Gymophaps. Also falling within the Treroninae is a potential clade of large-bodied doves including the tooth-billed pigeon Didunculus strigirostris of Samoa, the crested pigeons Goura of New Guinea, the Nicobar pigeon Caloenas nicobarica found from the Nicobar Islands to the Solomon Islands and Palau, and the extinct dodo Raphus cucullatus and solitaire Pezophaps solitaria of the Mascarenes. A clade of mostly Australasian pigeons includes the bronzewings Phaps and the rock pigeons Petrophassa.

<==Treroninae [Osmotreroninae, Phalacrotreroninae, Sphenocercinae, Treronidae, Vinagininae]
    |--+--Treron SS02
    |  `--+--Chalcophaps SS02
    |     `--+--Turtur SS02
    |        `--Oena Swainson 1837 SS02, B94 [Oeninae]
    |             `--O. capensis (Linnaeus 1766) [=Columba capensis] CC10
    |                  |--O. c. capensis T62
    |                  `--O. c. aliena T62
    `--+--+--Ducula SS02
       |  `--+--Ptilinopus SS02
       |     `--+--Lopholaimus Gould 1841 BKB15, B94 [Lopholaiminae]
       |        |    `--L. antarcticus JT12
       |        `--+--Hemiphaga Bonaparte 1854 BKB15, CC10 [Hemiphaginae]
       |           |    |--*H. novaeseelandiae (Gmelin 1789) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |           |    |--H. chathamensis (Rothschild 1891) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |           |    `--H. spadicea (Latham 1802) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |           `--Gymnophaps BKB15
       |                |--G. albertisii JT12
       |                |--G. mada JT12
       |                `--G. solomonensis JT12
       |--+--Didunculus Peale 1848 SS02, B94 [incl. Gnathodon Jardine 1845 B94; Didunculinae, Gnathodontinae]
       |  |    `--D. strigirostris SS02
       |  `--+--Gourinae [Lophyrinae, Megapeliinae, Ptilophyrinae] B94
       |     |    |--Microgoura Rothschild 1904 [Microgourinae] B94
       |     |    |    `--M. meeki Rothschild 1904 CC10
       |     |    `--Goura Stephens 1819 SS02, B94 (see below for synonymy)
       |     |         |--G. cristata JT12
       |     |         |--G. scheepmakeri JT12
       |     |         `--G. victoria SS02
       |     `--+--Caloenas Gray 1840 SS02, B94 [Caloenadinae]
       |        |    |--C. maculata HSS13
       |        |    `--C. nicobarica SS02 [incl. Columba gouldiae B66, Ca. gouldiae B66]
       |        `--Raphidae [Dididae] SS02
       |             |--Pezophaps Strickland 1848 SS02, B94 [Pezophabidae]
       |             |    `--P. solitaria (Gmelin 1789) U93
       |             `--Raphus Brisson 1760 SS02, B94 [incl. Didus Linné 1766 B94]
       |                  |--R. cucullatus (Linnaeus 1758) U93 [incl. Didus ineptus SS02]
       |                  `--R. solitaria (Selys-Lonchamps 1846) U93
       `--+--+--Otidiphaps Gould 1870 SS02, B94 [Otidiphabinae]
          |  |    `--O. nobilis SS02
          |  `--Trugon Gray 1849 JT12, B94 [Trugoninae]
          |       `--T. terrestris JT12
          `--+--Gallicolumba SS02
             `--+--Henicophaps JT12
                |    |--H. albifrons JT12
                |    `--H. foersteri JT12
                `--+--+--+--‘Gallicolumba’ beccarii JT12
                   |  |  `--‘Gallicolumba’ jobiensis JT12
                   |  `--‘Geopelia’ striata (Linnaeus 1766) BKB15, WS48 [=Columba striata WS48]
                   |       |--G. s. striata T62
                   |       |--G. s. audacis T62
                   |       `--G. s. tranquilla T62
                   `--+--Ocyphaps Gray 1842 SS02, B94 [Ocyphabinae]
                      |    `--O. lophotes (Temminck in Temminck & Laugier de Chartrouse 1822) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--+--Phaps Selby 1835 SS02, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                         |  |    |--P. chalcoptera (Latham 1790) [=Columba chalcoptera] CC10
                         |  |    |    |--P. c. chalcoptera T62
                         |  |    |    |--P. c. consobrina Mathews 1912 T62, WS48
                         |  |    |    `--P. c. murchisoni Mathews 1912 T62, WS48
                         |  |    |--P. elegans (Temminck 1810) WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                         |  |    `--P. histrionica (Gould 1841) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                         |  `--Petrophassa Gould 1841 JT12, B94
                         |       |--P. albipennis Gould 1840 WS48
                         |       |    |--P. a. albipennis [incl. P. albipennis alisteri Mathews 1912] WS48
                         |       |    `--P. a. boothi M03
                         |       `--P. rufipennis M03
                         `--+--Geopelia Swainson 1837 SS02, B94 [Geopeliinae]
                            |    |--G. cuneata (Latham 1802) CC10 [=Columba cuneata WS48]
                            |    |    |--G. c. cuneata T62
                            |    |    `--G. c. mungi Mathews 1912 T62, WS48
                            |    |--G. humeralis (Temminck 1821) (see below for synonymy) WS48
                            |    |--G. maugeus JT12
                            |    `--G. placida Gould 1844 JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                            `--+--Leucosarcia Gould 1843 BKB15, B94 [Leucosarciinae]
                               |    `--L. melanoleuca (Latham 1802) (see below for synonymy) CC10
                               `--Geophaps Gray 1842 JT12, B94 [Geophabinae]
                                    |--G. plumifera Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                                    |    |--G. p. plumifera M03
                                    |    `--G. p. leucogaster M03 [=Petrophassa plumifera leucogaster L81]
                                    |--G. scripta (Temminck 1821) [=Columba scripta] CC10
                                    |    |--G. s. scripta M03
                                    |    `--G. s. peninsulae M03
                                    `--G. smithii (Jardine & Selby 1830) CC10 (see below for synonymy)

Treroninae incertae sedis:
  Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa T62, JT12
  Butreron T62
  Phapitreron Bonaparte 1854 [Phapitreroninae] B94
    |--P. amethystinus JT12
    |--P. brunneiceps JT12
    `--P. cinereiceps JT12
  Phaenorhina goliath [=Carpophaga (Phaenorhina) goliath] S13
  Globicera pacifica S13
  Sphenurus T62
    |--S. apicauda T62
    |    |--S. a. apicauda T62
    |    |--S. a. laotinus T62
    |    `--S. a. lowei T62
    |--S. formosae [=Sphenocercus formosae] T62
    |    |--S. f. formosae T62
    |    `--S. f. medioximus T62
    |--S. oxyura T62
    `--S. sphenurus T62

Hybrid: Geopelia shortridgei Ogilvie Grant 1909 [G. cuneata × G. striata] WS48

Geopelia humeralis (Temminck 1821) [=Columba humeralis; incl. G. humeralis headlandi Mathews 1912, G. humeralis inexpectata Mathews 1912] WS48

Geopelia placida Gould 1844 JT12, WS48 [=G. striata placida T62; incl. G. placida clelandi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Geophaps plumifera Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [=Lophophaps plumifera WS48, Petrophassa plumifera L81; incl. L. plumifera pallida Mathews 1912 WS48]

Geophaps smithii (Jardine & Selby 1830) CC10 [=Columba smithii WS48, Petrophassa smithii L81; incl. Geophaps smithii blaauwi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Goura Stephens 1819 SS02, B94 [incl. Lophyrus Vieillot 1816 non Poli 1791 B94, Megapelia Kaup 1836 B94, Ptilophyrus Swainson 1837 B94]

Hemiphaga chathamensis (Rothschild 1891) [=Carpophaga chathamensis, C. chathamica, C. chathamiensis, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae chathamensis] CC10

*Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (Gmelin 1789) [=Columba novaeseelandiae, Carpophaga novaezealandiae, Co. novaezealandiae, Hemiphaga novaezealandiae; incl. Co. argetraea Forster 1794, Co. zealandica Latham 1790] CC10

Hemiphaga spadicea (Latham 1802) [=Columba spadicea, Carpophaga spadicea, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea, Columba gigas Ranzani 1821, Co. leucogaster Wagler 1827; incl. Co. princeps Vigors 1833] CC10

Leucosarcia melanoleuca (Latham 1802) [=Columba melanoleuca; incl. C. picata Latham 1802, Leucosarcia picata, Phaps picata] CC10

Ocyphaps lophotes (Temminck in Temminck & Laugier de Chartrouse 1822) CC10 [=Columba lophotes CC10; incl. O. lophotes whitlocki Mathews 1912 WS48]

Phaps Selby 1835 SS02, B94 [incl. Cosmopelia Sundevall 1873 B94; Cosmopeliinae, Phabinae]

Phaps elegans (Temminck 1810) WS48 [=Columba elegans WS48; incl. P. elegans occidentalis M03]

Phaps histrionica (Gould 1841) CC10 [=Peristera histrionica CC10, Columba (Peristera) histrionica WS48, Histriophaps histrionica WS48; incl. Phaps histrionica alisteri Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B66] Bartlett, A. D. 1866. Notes on the breeding of several species of birds in the Society's gardens during the year 1865. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 76–79.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SS02] Shapiro, B., D. Sibthorpe, A. Rambaut, J. Austin, G. M. Wragg, O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, P. L. M. Lee & A. Cooper. 2002. Flight of the dodo. Nature 295: 1683.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Last updated: 29 August 2019.

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