Red admiral Vanessa atalanta, photographed by Beentree.

Belongs within: Nymphalinae.

The Nymphalini is a cosmopolitan group of butterflies including such taxa as the admirals and painted ladies (Vanessa) and the anglewings (Polygonia). Members of the genus Vanessa are colourful, often migratory butterflies that feed as larvae on plants of the families Urticaceae and Asteraceae.

    |  i. s.: Hypna [incl. Hecalene] B66
    |           |--H. clytemnestra [=Papilio clytemnestra] B66
    |           |--H. elongata Butler 1866 B66
    |           |--H. globosa Butler 1866 B66
    |           |--H. huebneri Butler 1866 [incl. H. clytemnestra var. iphigenia, H. clytemnestra var. negra] B66
    |           |--H. rufescens Butler 1866 B66
    |           `--H. velox Butler 1866 B66
    |--Antanartia schaenia WWN03
    `--+--+--Polygonia c-album WWN03
       |  `--Nymphalis antiopa WWN03
       `--+--Bassaris Hübner 1821 J03, B00
          |    |--B. gonerilla (Fabricius 1775) J03, B00 [=Vanessa gonerilla J03]
          |    |    |--B. g. gonerilla C88
          |    |    `--B. g. ida C88
          |    `--B. itea (Fabricius 1775) J03, B00 [=Vanessa itea J03]
          `--Vanessa Fabricius 1807 WWN03, B00 [incl. Cynthia Fabricius 1807 B00]
               |--V. amerindica GE05
               |--V. atalanta WWN03
               |--V. callirhoe P01
               |--V. cardui (Linnaeus 1758) B00 [=Cynthia cardui I92]
               |--V. indica P93
               |--V. io P01
               |--V. karagancia GE05
               |--V. kershawi McCoy 1868 PP02 [=Cynthia kershawi O81]
               |--V. levana P01
               `--V. urticae TYM08
                    |--V. u. urticae TYM08
                    `--V. u. nekkana Kishida & Nakamura 1934 TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. A revision of the genus Hypna, with descriptions of the new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 206–210.

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473–484.

Last updated: 19 August 2017.

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