Hypolimnas bolina, photographed by Comacontrol.

Belongs within: Nymphalidae.
Contains: Nymphalini, Melitaeini.

The Nymphalinae is a cosmopolitan clade of butterflies supported in its current circumscription by molecular analysis (Wahlberg et al. 2003).

    |--+--Nymphalini WWN03
    |  `--Colobura [Coeini] WWN03
    |       `--C. dirce WWN03
    `--Kallimini WWN03
         |--Kallima WWN03
         |    |--K. inachus I92
         |    |    |--K. i. inachus I92
         |    |    `--K. i. eucerca Fruhstorfer 1898 I92
         |    `--K. paralekta WWN03
         `--+--+--Siproeta stelenes WWN03
            |  `--Melitaeini WWN03
            `--+--+--Protogoniomorpha anacardii WWN03
               |  `--Junonia WWN03
               |       |--J. aonis WM66
               |       |--J. asteria WM66
               |       |--J. iphita WWN03
               |       |--J. lemonias WM66
               |       |--J. orythia WM66
               |       `--J. villida Fabricius 1787 PP02
               `--Hypolimnas WWN03
                    |--H. antilope PP02
                    |    |--H. a. antilope PP02
                    |    `--H. a. lutescens PP02
                    |--H. bolina WWN03
                    |    |--H. b. bolina PP02
                    |    `--H. b. pallescens PP02
                    |--H. inopinata PP02
                    `--H. octocula PP02

Nymphalinae incertae sedis:
  Doleschallia bisaltide PP02
    |--D. b. bisaltide PP02
    `--D. b. vomana PP02
  Euptoieta hegesia (Cramer 1779) FS54
  Anthanassa FS54
    |--A. frisia FS54
    |    |--A. f. frisia FS54
    |    `--A. f. tulcis (Bates 1864) FS54
    `--A. ptolyca (Bates 1864) FS54
  Microtia elva Bates 1864 FS54
  Pyrameis FS54
    |--P. cardui P27
    |--P. gonerilla P27
    `--P. huntera (Fabricius 1775) FS54
  Precis FS54
    |--P. coenia SSD96
    `--P. lavinia (Cramer 1775) S55
  Anartia FS54
    |--A. amathea (Linnaeus 1758) S55
    |--A. fatima (Fabricius 1793) FS54
    |    |--A. f. fatima FS54
    |    `--A. f. venusta FS54
    `--A. jatrophae (Linnaeus 1764) S55
  Victorina FS54
    |--V. epaphus Latreille 1811 S55
    |--V. steneles (Linnaeus 1764) S55
    |    |--V. s. steneles S55
    |    |--V. s. bipunctata Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
    |    `--V. s. pallida Fruhstorfer 1907 FS54
    |--V. sulpitia (Cramer 1782) S55
    `--V. superba (Bates 1864) [=Amphirene superba; incl. V. aphrodite Butler 1865] B66b
  Megalura FS54
    |--M. berania Hewitson 1852 S55
    |--M. coresia (Godart 1819) FS54
    |--M. livius Kirby 1852 S55
    |--M. marcella Felder 1861 S55
    `--M. peleus Sulzer 1776 S55
  Smyrna blomfildia FS54
    |--S. b. blomfildia FS54
    `--S. b. datis Fruhstorfer 1908 FS54
  Cyclogramma pandama Doubleday & Hewitson 1850 FS54
  Heterochroa FS54
    |--H. basiloides (Bates 1864) FS54
    `--H. celerio FS54
         |--H. c. celerio FS54
         `--H. c. diademata Fruhstorfer 1915 FS54
  Mynes J03
  Symbrenthia J03
  Prodryas persephone GE05
  Lithodryas styx GE05
  Chlorippe GE05
    |--C. laurentia B66a
    |--C. lucasii B66a
    `--C. wilmattae GE05
  Jupitellia charon GE05
  Nymphalites GE05
    |--N. obscurum GE05
    `--N. scudderi GE05
  Apanthesis leuce GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Descriptions of some new exotic butterflies in the National Collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 39-42.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865-66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451-458.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143-156.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

[SSD96] Sterelny, K., K. C. Smith & M. Dickison. 1996. The extended replicator. Biology and Philosophy 11: 377-403.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473-484.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

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