Orange oakleaf Kallima inachus, copyright Suppu.

Belongs within: Nymphalidae.
Contains: Precis, Nymphalini, Melitaeini, Hypolimnas, Junonia.

The Nymphalinae is a cosmopolitan clade of butterflies supported in its current circumscription by molecular analysis (Wahlberg et al. 2003). Members include the oakleaf butterflies of the genus Kallima, found in southern and eastern Asia, which have the undersides of the wings marked to resemble a dead leaf when closed.

    |--+--Nymphalini WWN03
    |  `--Colobura [Coeini] WWN03
    |       `--C. dirce WWN03
    `--Kallimini WWN03
         |--Kallima WWN03
         |    |--K. inachus I92
         |    |    |--K. i. inachus I92
         |    |    `--K. i. eucerca Fruhstorfer 1898 I92
         |    `--K. paralekta WWN03
         `--+--+--Siproeta stelenes WWN03
            |  `--Melitaeini WWN03
            `--+--Hypolimnas WWN03
               `--+--Junonia WWN03
                  `--Protogoniomorpha WWN03
                       |--P. anacardii WWN03
                       `--P. nebulosa B01a

Nymphalinae incertae sedis:
  Doleschallia Felder & Felder 1860 B00
    `--D. bisaltide (Cramer 1777) B00
         |--D. b. bisaltide PP02
         |--D. b. australis Felder & Felder 1867 B00
         `--D. b. vomana PP02
  Euptoieta hegesia (Cramer 1779) FS54
  Anthanassa FS54
    |--A. frisia FS54
    |    |--A. f. frisia FS54
    |    `--A. f. tulcis (Bates 1864) FS54
    `--A. ptolyca (Bates 1864) FS54
  Microtia elva Bates 1864 FS54
  Pyrameis FS54
    |--P. abyssinica B01b
    |--P. atalanta F92
    |--P. cardui P27
    |--P. gonerilla P27
    `--P. huntera (Fabricius 1775) FS54
  Precis FS54
  Anartia FS54
    |--A. amathea (Linnaeus 1758) S55
    |--A. fatima (Fabricius 1793) FS54
    |    |--A. f. fatima FS54
    |    `--A. f. venusta FS54
    `--A. jatrophae (Linnaeus 1764) S55
  Victorina FS54
    |--V. epaphus Latreille 1811 S55
    |--V. steneles (Linnaeus 1764) S55
    |    |--V. s. steneles S55
    |    |--V. s. bipunctata Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
    |    `--V. s. pallida Fruhstorfer 1907 FS54
    |--V. sulpitia (Cramer 1782) S55
    `--V. superba (Bates 1864) [=Amphirene superba; incl. V. aphrodite Butler 1865] B66b
  Megalura FS54
    |--M. berania Hewitson 1852 S55
    |--M. coresia (Godart 1819) FS54
    |--M. livius Kirby 1852 S55
    |--M. marcella Felder 1861 S55
    `--M. peleus Sulzer 1776 S55
  Smyrna blomfildia FS54
    |--S. b. blomfildia FS54
    `--S. b. datis Fruhstorfer 1908 FS54
  Cyclogramma pandama Doubleday & Hewitson 1850 FS54
  Heterochroa FS54
    |--H. basiloides (Bates 1864) FS54
    `--H. celerio FS54
         |--H. c. celerio FS54
         `--H. c. diademata Fruhstorfer 1915 FS54
  Mynes Boisduval 1832 B00
    `--M. geoffroyi (Guérin-Méneville 1830) B00
         |--M. g. geoffroyi B00
         `--M. g. guerini Wallace 1869 B00
  Symbrenthia J03
  Prodryas persephone GE05
  Lithodryas styx GE05
  Chlorippe GE05
    |--C. laurentia B66a
    |--C. lucasii B66a
    `--C. wilmattae GE05
  Jupitellia charon GE05
  Nymphalites GE05
    |--N. obscurum GE05
    `--N. scudderi GE05
  Apanthesis leuce GE05
  Yoma Doherty 1886 B00
    `--Y. sabina (Cramer 1780) [incl. Y. algina] B00
         |--Y. s. sabina B00
         `--Y. s. parva (Butler 1876) B00
  Brenthis RD77
  Araschnia levana [incl. A. prorsa] RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Descriptions of some new exotic butterflies in the National Collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 39–42.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865-66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451–458.

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473–484.

Last updated: 27 February 2021.

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