Common evening brown Melanitis leda, photographed by Ravi Vaidyanathan.

Belongs within: Nymphalidae.
Contains: Calisto, Oreixenica, Elymniini, Satyrini.

The Satyrinae are a cosmopolitan group of butterflies with the greater diversity in the tropics. Most species are relatively drab in coloration, with browns and greys predominating, though there are some more colourful tropical species. Larvae have bifid tails and mostly feed on monocots.

<==Satyrinae [Satyridae]
    |--+--Elymniini WWN03
    |  `--Satyrini WWN03
    `--+--Manataria maculata WWN03
       `--Melanitis Fabricius 1807 WWN03, B00 [Melanitini]
            |--M. amabilis (Boisduval 1832) B00
            |    |--M. a. amabilis B00
            |    `--M. a. valentina Fruhstorfer 1908 B00
            |--M. ariadne [=Biblis (Melanitis) ariadne] G20
            |--M. constantia (Cramer 1777) B00
            |--M. ismene RD77
            |--M. leda (Linnaeus 1758) B00
            |    |--M. l. leda B12
            |    |--M. l. bankia (Fabricius 1775) B12
            |    |--M. l. levuna PP02
            |    `--M. l. saipanensis Nakamura 1929 TYM08
            `--M. undularis WM66

Satyrinae incertae sedis:
  Haetera GE05 [Haeterini WWN03]
    |--H. diaphana [=Satyrus (Haetera) diaphanus] G20
    `--H. macleannania GE05
  Eritini WWN03
  Ragadiini WWN03
  Taygetis S55
    |--T. andromeda (Cramer 1779) S55
    |--T. kerea Butler 1869 FS54
    `--T. uncinata Weymer 1907 FS54
  Pierella lena (Linnaeus 1767) S55
  Bia [Biini] S55
    `--B. actorion (Linnaeus 1767) S55
  Dodonidia helmsi T27
  Neorinella garciae GE05
  Lethe GE05
    |--L. corbieri GE05
    `--L. diana I92
         |--L. d. diana I92
         `--L. d. mikuraensis Shirôzu 1975 I92
  Pseudoneorina coulleti GE05
  Tisiphone Hübner 1819 B00
    |--T. abeona (Donovan 1805) B00
    |    |--T. a. abeona B00
    |    |--T. a. albifascia Waterhouse 1904 [incl. T. abeona antoni Tindale 1947] B00
    |    |--T. a. aurelia Waterhouse 1915 B00
    |    |--T. a. morrisi Waterhouse 1914 B00
    |    |--T. a. rawnsleyi (Miskin 1876) B00
    |    `--T. a. regalis Waterhouse 1928 B00
    `--T. helena (Olliff 1888) [=T. abeona helena] B00
  Calisto L88
  Eretris L88
  Pararge P01
    |--P. achine P01
    |--P. aegeria KP19
    `--P. megaera P01
  Epinephele P01
    |--E. hyperanthus P01
    |--E. janira F92
    `--E. lycaon P01
  Oreixenica B00
  Nesoxenica Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
    `--N. leprea (Hewitson 1864) B00
         |--N. l. leprea B00
         `--N. l. elia Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
  Argynnina Butler 1867 B00
    |--A. cyrila Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 [=A. hobartia cyrila] B00
    `--A. hobartia (Westwood 1851) B00
         |--A. h. hobartia B00
         |--A. h. montana Couchman & Couchman 1977 B00
         `--A. h. tasmanica (Lyell 1900) B00
  Geitoneura Butler 1867 B00
    |--G. acantha (Donovan 1805) B00
    |--G. klugii (Guérin-Méneville 1830) [incl. G. k. insula Burns 1951, G. k. mulesi (Burns 1948)] B00
    `--G. minyas (Waterhouse & Lyell 1914) [incl. G. minyas mjobergi (Aurivillius 1920)] B00
  Lethites reynesii RJ93
  Cithaerias RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473–484.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

Last updated: 27 February 2021.

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