Salenioida

Salenia texana, copyright Ecphora.


Belongs within: Echinacea.

The Salenioida are a group of echinoids known from the Lower Jurassic (possibly the Upper Triassic) to the present. Members of this group commonly have one or more large suranal plates over the apical system that superficially resemble a calyx. They are first represented in the fossil record by the Acrosaleniidae, which survived to the Upper Cretaceous and possess perforate primary tubercles. The Saleniidae, with imperforate primary tubercles, are known from the Upper Jurassic to the present (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966): Lantern stirodont. Test of cidaroid facies (each interambulacral plate with single large primary tubercle and number of much smaller secondary tubercles). Ambulacrals simple or compounded in diadematoid manner. Apical svstem with one or several large, polygonal suranal plates, closely connected with the oculogenital ring, simulating a calyx. Inner border of oculogenital ring angular, not circular or oval. Periproct posterior (toward genital 5) or posterodextral (toward ocular I), encroaching on posterior edge of suranal plate, or plates, which become emarginated. Primary tubercles usually crenulate. Primary spines of cidaroid facies, with collar and cortex layer.

<==Salenioida [Calycina]
    |--Acrosaleniidae FP66
    |    |--Monodiadema de Loriol 1890 FP66
    |    |    `--*M. cotteaui de Loriol 1890 FP66
    |    |--Polysalenia Mortensen 1932 FP66
    |    |    `--*P. notabilis Mortensen 1932 FP66
    |    |--Recrosalenia Currie 1925 FP66
    |    |    `--*R. somaliensis Currie 1925 FP66
    |    |--Heterosalenia Cotteau 1861 [incl. Metacrosalenia Currie 1925] FP66
    |    |    |--*H. martini Cotteau 1861 FP66
    |    |    `--*Metacrosalenia’ pseudocidaroides Currie 1925 FP66
    |    |--Pseudosalenia Cotteau 1859 [=Amphisalenia Pomel 1883, Perisalenia Valette 1906] FP66
    |    |    |--P. aspera (Agassiz 1838) [=Acrosalenia aspera; incl. *P. flexuosa Cotteau 1859] FP66
    |    |    |--‘Acrosalenia’ gauthieri [=*Perisalenia gauthieri] FP66
    |    |    `--P. zumoffeni FP66
    |    `--Acrosalenia Agassiz 1840 (see below for synonymy) FP66
    |         |--*A. spinosa Agassiz 1840 FP66
    |         |--‘Hemicidaris’ angularis Agassiz 1846 [=*Milnia angularis] FP66
    |         |--A. colcanapi FP99
    |         |--A. hemicidaroides FP66
    |         |--A. marcotti MD66
    |         |--A. patella [=Hemicidaris patella, *Thylosalenia patella] FP66
    |         `--A. pentagona [=*Plesiosalenia pentagona] FP66
    `--Saleniidae [Salenies] FP66
         |--Hyposaleniinae FP66
         |    |--Idiocidaris de Loriol 1909 FP66
         |    |    `--*I. lamberti de Loriol 1909 FP66
         |    |--Glyphopneustes Pomel 1869 [=Coptophyma Peron & Gauthier 1879] FP66
         |    |    `--*G. problematicus (Cotteau 1880) [=Goniophorus problematicus, *Coptophyma problematicum] FP66
         |    |--Goniophorus Agassiz 1838 [incl. Gonosalenia Quenstedt 1872] FP66
         |    |    `--*G. lunulatus Agassiz 1838 FP66
         |    |--Poropeltaris Quenstedt 1875 [=Poropeltis (l. c.)] FP66
         |    |    `--*P. sculptopunctata Quenstedt 1875 FP66
         |    `--Hyposalenia Desor 1856 (see below for synonymy) FP66
         |         |--*H. acanthoides [=Echinus acanthoides, *Peltastes acanthoides, *Peltosalenia acanthoides] FP66
         |         |--H. clathrata FP66
         |         |--H. heliophora FP66
         |         `--H. wrighti FP66
         `--Saleniinae FP66
              |--Trisalenia Lambert 1895 FP66
              |    `--*T. loveni (Cotteau 1859) [=Salenia loveni] FP66
              |--Valsalenia Mortensen 1934 FP66
              |    `--*V. garumnensis (Valette 1905) [=Salenia garumnensis] FP66
              |--Salenocidaris Agassiz 1869 FP66
              |    |--*S. varispina Agassiz 1869 FP66
              |    `--S. miliaris FP66
              |--Salenidia Pomel 1883 [incl. Pleurosalenia Pomel 1883] FP66
              |    |--*S. gibba [=Salenia gibba] FP66
              |    |--S. blandfordi FP66
              |    `--S. heberti FP66
              `--Salenia Gray 1835 [incl. Bathysalenia Pomel 1838, Cidarelle Desmoulins 1835] FP66
                   |--*S. scutigera (M√ľnster in Goldfuss 1826) [=Cidarites scutigera] FP66
                   |--S. goesiana FP66
                   |--S. neocomensis FP66
                   |--‘Echinus’ petaliferus [=*Cidarelle petalifera] FP66
                   |--S. rejaudryi FP66
                   |--S. texana K79
                   `--S. tumidula FP66

Acrosalenia Agassiz 1840 [incl. Milnia Haime 1849, Plesiosalenia Valette 1906, Thylosalenia Pomel 1883] FP66

Hyposalenia Desor 1856 [=Peltaris Quenstedt 1873, Peltastes Agassiz 1838 non Illiger 1807, Peltosalenia Quenstedt 1874] FP66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FD66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[FP99] Flynn, J. J., J. M. Parrish, B. Rakotosamimanana, W. F. Simpson & A. R. Wyss. 1999. A Middle Jurassic mammal from Madagascar. Nature 401: 57–60.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MD66] Melville, R. V., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Echinoids—skeletal morphology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U220–U251. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS