Japanese pepper Zanthoxylum piperitum, photographed by Karl Gercens.

Belongs within: Rutaceae.
Contains: Boronieae.

The name 'Zanthoxyleae' is here being applied to a clade corresponding to the 'Euodia alliance' of Kubitzki et al (2011), as the Zanthoxyleae as previously recognised are paraphyletic with regard to other tribes within the Rutaceae. Members of the Euodia alliance are found mostly in the Old World, with only the genus Zanthoxylum present in the New World. Zanthoxylum is pantropical; the fruit of some species of this genus such as Z. piperitum are used to make Sichuan pepper. The white sapote Casimiroa edulis is cultivated for its edible fruit. The Diosmeae are a southern African clade with connected ovarioles and exalbuminous seeds. Melicope is a genus of trees and shrubs found in tropical Asia and Australasia with 1- or 3-foliolate leaves and tetramerous flowers with minute sepals and inflexed apices to the petals (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Kubitzki et al. 2011): Mostly rainforest trees or shrubs; flowers mostly (5-)4-merous, diplo-(haplo-)stemonous; ovarioles distinct or basally connate and stylodia joined in a common style, or gynoecium syncarpous; ovules 2, 1, or rarely more than 2; fruits dehiscing or drupaceous; dorsilateral endocarp in dehiscent fruits usually discharged with seed; ventral endocarp sometimes well developed; seeds with or rarely without sclerotesta, sometimes with sarcotesta, albuminous or exalbuminous.

<==Zanthoxyleae [Euodiinae, Toddalieae, Toddalioideae]
    |--Zanthoxylum MS06
    |    |--Z. ailanthoides [=Zanthoxilon ailanthoides] LO98
    |    |--Z. brachyacanthum B00a
    |    |--Z. clava-herculis R56
    |    |--Z. haitiense J87
    |    |--Z. martinicense SWK87
    |    |--Z. monophyllum MS06
    |    |--Z. nitidum BB07
    |    |--Z. ovalifolium B00a
    |    |--Z. parviflorum LK14
    |    |--Z. piperitum AO03
    |    |--Z. tetraphyllum J87
    |    `--Z. veneficum S91
    `--+--+--Diosmeae MS06
       |  |    |--Calodendrum [Calodendrinae] MS06
       |  |    |    `--C. capensis MS06
       |  |    `--+--Adenandra [Diosminae] MS06
       |  |       |    `--A. uniflora MS06
       |  |       `--Phellodendron [Phellodendrinae] MS06
       |  |            `--P. amurense MS06 [incl. Evodia glauca LO98]
       |  `--+--+--Pilocarpus [Cusparieae, Pilocarpinae] MS06
       |     |  |    `--P. pennatifolius MS06
       |     |  `--Choisya [Choisyinae] MS06
       |     |       |--C. mollis MS06
       |     |       `--C. ternata B00a
       |     `--Toddaliinae MS06
       |          |  i. s.: Toddalia hofmannii JD05
       |          |--Casimiroa edulis MS06
       |          `--+--Skimmia anquetilia MS06
       |             `--Dictamnus [Dictamninae] MS06
       |                  `--D. albus H91
       `--+--+--Boronieae MS06
          |  `--+--Sarcomelicope simplicifolia MS06
          |     `--Melicope Forster & Forster 1776 MS06, A61
          |          |--M. bonwickii B00a
          |          |--M. elleryana BH07
          |          |--M. micrococca B14
          |          |--M. parvula Buchanan 1888 (n. d.) A61
          |          |--M. rubra B00a
          |          |--M. simplex Cunn. 1839 [incl. Astorganthus huegelii Endl 1843] A61
          |          |--M. ternata Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
          |          `--M. vitifolia B00a
          `--+--Lunasia [Lunasiinae] MS06
             |    `--L. amara MS06
             `--Flindersia MS06
                  |--F. australis MS06
                  |--F. bennettii B00a
                  |--F. bourjotiana H42
                  |--F. brayleana Z94
                  |--F. collina B00a
                  |--F. ifflaiana B00a
                  |--F. laevicarpa B00a
                  |--F. maculosa B00b
                  |--F. oppositifolia B00a
                  |--F. pimenteliana B00a
                  `--F. schottiana NC91

Melicope ternata Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. M. ternata var. grandis Cheeseman 1887, Entoganum laevigatum Gaertn. 1788, M. mantelli Buchanan 1871, M. ternata var. mantelli (Buchanan) Kirk 1889] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[AO03] Aoki, T., K. O’Donnell, Y. Homma & A. R. Lattanzi. 2003. Sudden-death syndrome of soybean is caused by two morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium solani species complex—F. virguliforme in North America and F. tucumaniae in South America. Mycologia 95 (4): 660–684.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BH07] Brock, P. D., & J. W. Hasenpusch. 2007. Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography. Zootaxa 1570: 1–81.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family "out-of-Africa": divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236–250.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R56] Reed, C. F. 1956. Hyla cinerea in Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, with notes on the taxonomic status of Hyla cinerea evittata. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (10): 328–332.

[S91] Sankowsky, G. 1991. New food plants for some Queensland butterflies. Australian Entomological Magazine 18 (1): 9–19.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 24 March 2021.

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