Japanese pepper Zanthoxylum piperitum, photographed by Karl Gercens.

Belongs within: Rutaceae.
Contains: Boronieae.

The name 'Zanthoxyleae' is here being applied to a clade corresponding to the 'Euodia alliance' of Kubitzki et al (2011), as the Zanthoxyleae as previously recognised are paraphyletic with regard to other tribes within the Rutaceae. Members of the Euodia alliance are found mostly in the Old World, with only the genus Zanthoxylum present in the New World. Zanthoxylum is pantropical; the fruit of some species of this genus such as Z. piperitum are used to make Sichuan pepper. The white sapote Casimiroa edulis is cultivated for its edible fruit.

Characters (from Kubitzki et al. 2011): Mostly rainforest trees or shrubs; flowers mostly (5-)4-merous, diplo-(haplo-)stemonous; ovarioles distinct or basally connate and stylodia joined in a common style, or gynoecium syncarpous; ovules 2, 1, or rarely more than 2; fruits dehiscing or drupaceous; dorsilateral endocarp in dehiscent fruits usually discharged with seed; ventral endocarp sometimes well developed; seeds with or rarely without sclerotesta, sometimes with sarcotesta, albuminous or exalbuminous.

<==Zanthoxyleae [Euodiinae, Toddalieae, Toddalioideae]
    |--Zanthoxylum MS06
    |    |--Z. ailanthoides [=Zanthoxilon ailanthoides] LO98
    |    |--Z. haitiense J87
    |    |--Z. martinicense SWK87
    |    |--Z. monophyllum MS06
    |    |--Z. nitidum BB07
    |    |--Z. piperitum AO03
    |    `--Z. tetraphyllum J87
    `--+--+--+--Lunasia [Lunasiinae] MS06
       |  |  |    `--L. amara MS06
       |  |  `--Flindersia MS06
       |  |       |--F. australis MS06
       |  |       `--F. bourjotiana H42
       |  `--+--Boronieae MS06
       |     `--+--Sarcomelicope simplicifolia MS06
       |        `--Melicope Forster & Forster 1776 MS06, A61
       |             |--M. elleryana BH07
       |             |--M. parvula Buchanan 1888 (n. d.) A61
       |             |--M. simplex Cunn. 1839 [incl. Astorganthus huegelii Endl 1843] A61
       |             `--M. ternata Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
       `--+--Diosmeae MS06
          |    |--Calodendrum [Calodendrinae] MS06
          |    |    `--C. capensis MS06
          |    `--+--Adenandra [Diosminae] MS06
          |       |    `--A. uniflora MS06
          |       `--Phellodendron [Phellodendrinae] MS06
          |            `--P. amurense MS06 [incl. Evodia glauca LO98]
          `--+--+--Choisya [Choisyinae] MS06
             |  |    `--C. mollis MS06
             |  `--Pilocarpus [Cusparieae, Pilocarpinae] MS06
             |       `--P. pennatifolius MS06
             `--Toddaliinae MS06
                  |  i. s.: Toddalia hofmannii JD05
                  |--Casimiroa edulis MS06
                  `--+--Skimmia anquetilia MS06
                     `--Dictamnus [Dictamninae] MS06
                          `--D. albus H91

Melicope ternata Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. M. ternata var. grandis Cheeseman 1887, Entoganum laevigatum Gaertn. 1788, M. mantelli Buchanan 1871, M. ternata var. mantelli (Buchanan) Kirk 1889] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[AO03] Aoki, T., K. O’Donnell, Y. Homma & A. R. Lattanzi. 2003. Sudden-death syndrome of soybean is caused by two morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium solani species complex – F. virguliforme in North America and F. tucumaniae in South America. Mycologia 95 (4): 660-684.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BH07] Brock, P. D. & J. W. Hasenpusch. 2007. Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography. Zootaxa 1570: 1-81.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

Kubitzki, K., J. A. Kallunki, M. Duretto & P. G. Wilson. 2011. Rutaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 10. Flowering plants: Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae pp. 276-356. Springer.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family "out-of-Africa": divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236-250.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

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