Liliales

Rough bindweed Smilax aspera, photographed by Carsten Niehaus.


Belongs within: Liliidae.
Contains: Colchicaceae, Liliaceae.

The Liliales is a major clade within the monocotyledons, many species of which are significant garden plants. Many species are bulbous or rhizomatous herbs; others are climbers, such as the greenbriers Smilax and supplejacks Ripogonum. The Corsiaceae are small mycoheterotrophic herbs that lack chlorophyll, found in Australasia and South America.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Storage fructans, chelidonic acid, steroidal saponins present; leaves elliptical, fine venation reticulate; inflorescence terminal; tepals large (sometimes small), free, tepal nectaries present; anthers extrorse; style often long, stigma capitate; ovules many/carpel, parietal tissue absent, nucellar cap present; perianth deciduous; tegmen with cellular structure; endosperm with thick pitted walls, hemicellulosic; mitochondrial sdh3 gene lost.

<==Liliales [Alstroemeriales]
    |  i. s.: Lachnanthes tinctoria MM96
    |--Arachnitis [Corsiaceae] DS04
    |    `--A. uniflora DS04
    `--+--Campynema [Campynemataceae] DS04
       |    `--C. lineare DS04
       `--+--+--Petermannia [Petermanniaceae] DS04
          |  |    `--P. cirrosa DS04
          |  `--+--Luzuriaga Ruiz & Pav. 1802 (nom. cons.) DS04, ME70 [Luzuriagaceae]
          |     |    |--*L. radicans ME70
          |     |    |--L. marginata ME70
          |     |    `--L. parviflora (Hook. f.) Kunth 1850 (see below for synonymy) ME70
          |     `--+--Colchicaceae DS04
          |        `--Alstroemeriaceae DS04
          |             |--Bomarea HE80
          |             |    |--B. edulis J87
          |             |    `--B. multiflora HE80
          |             `--Alstroemeria SaaRai07
          |                  |--A. aurantiaca Don in Sweet 1833 HE80
          |                  |--A. caryophyllaea DS04
          |                  `--A. pulchella Linnaeus 1781 HE80
          `--+--+--Trillium [Trilliaceae] SaaRai07
             |  |    |--T. grandiflorum DS04
             |  |    `--T. kamtschaticum T03
             |  `--Melanthiaceae DS04
             |       |  i. s.: Melanthium YY22
             |       |--Chamaelirium luteum DS04
             |       `--+--Amianthium muscaetoxicum DS04
             |          `--Veratrum DS04
             |               |--V. album DS04
             |               |--V. nigrum C55a
             |               `--V. viride DS04
             `--+--+--Philesia [Philesiaceae] DS04
                |  |    `--P. buxifolia DS04
                |  `--Ripogonum Forster & Forster 1776 DS04, ME70 [Ripogonaceae]
                |       |--*R. scandens Forster & Forster 1776 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
                |       |--R. discolor DS04
                |       `--R. elseyanum DS04
                `--+--+--Liliaceae SaaRai07
                   |  `--Calochortus [Calochortaceae] DS04
                   |       |--C. longebarbatus RS98
                   |       `--C. minimus DS04
                   `--Smilax [Smilacaceae] DS04
                        |--S. aspera Linnaeus 1753 PL04
                        |--S. australis LK14
                        |--S. bona-nox WM14
                        |--S. havanensis J87
                        |--S. lanceifolia D07
                        |--S. mexicana GJ09
                        |--S. perfoliata BB07
                        |--S. rotundifolia DS04
                        `--S. zeylanica SanRav07

Luzuriaga parviflora (Hook. f.) Kunth 1850 [=Callixene parviflora Hook. f. 1844, Enargea parviflora (Hook. f.) Skottsb. 1915; incl. C. melantha Col. 1885] ME70

*Ripogonum scandens Forster & Forster 1776 ME70 [incl. Rhipogonum parviflorum C06, Smilax ripogonum Forst. f. 1786 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 121–154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 79–88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[RS98] Ramsey, J., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467–501.

[SaaRai07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[SanRav07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 165–172.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5–24.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

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