Jonquils Narcissus jonquilla, photographed by Tony Hall.

Belongs within: Asparagales.

The Amaryllidaceae are a family of bulb-producing plants that are most diverse in temperate and warm temperate regions. They are distinguished by having the inflorescence subtended by an involucre of one or more spathaceous bracts (Healy & Edgar 1980). Numerous examples are grown as ornamentals, such as numerous species of the genus Narcissus, daffodils, which usually bear white or yellow flowers with a trumpet- or cup-shaped corona inside the flower at the top of the floral tube.

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Clump-forming perennial herbs; bulb tunicate. Leaves few, basal, ± linear to lorate. Flowers bisexual, usually actinomorphic and umbellate, occasionally solitary; spathe of 1-2 valves, scarious, persistent or deciduous before maturity. Perianth petaloid, with or without tube, sometimes with corona. Stamens 6, opposite perianth-segments, inserted on them or free; filaments free, or expanded at base and connate. Ovary inferior; style slender, with capitate or three-lobed stigma; ovules usually many. Fruit a capsule, or fleshy and indehiscent.

Amaryllidaceae [Amaryllidales, Amaryllidineae]
    |--Eurycles amboinensis P88
    |--Milula spicata O88
    |--Leucojum aestivum Linnaeus 1759 HE80
    |--Zephyranthes candida HE80
    |--Vallota speciosa HE80
    |--Amaryllis belladonna Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |--Haemanthus avasmontanus CV06
    |--Namaquanula bruynsii CV06
    |--Scadoxus multiflorus DVC08
    |--Ammocharis CV06
    |    |--A. coranica B14
    |    `--A. nerinoides CV06
    |--Strumaria CV06
    |    |--S. hardyana CV06
    |    `--S. phonolithica CV06
    |--Hippeastrum J87
    |    |--H. aulicum D59
    |    `--H. puniceum J87
    |--Galanthus V09
    |    |--G. latifolius V09
    |    `--G. nivalis V02
    |--Proiphys LK14
    |    |--P. alba LK14
    |    `--P. amboinensis LK14
    |--Pancratium P03
    |    |--P. biflorum P03
    |    |--P. maritimum Y98
    |    `--P. triflorum YG03
    |--Nerine HE80
    |    |--N. filifolia HE80
    |    |--N. pusilla CV06
    |    `--N. sarniensis [=Amaryllis sarniensis] C55
    |--Crinum BB07
    |    |--C. americanum S00
    |    |--C. amoenum BB07
    |    |--C. angustifolium VT13
    |    |--C. asiaticum P88
    |    |--C. capense D59
    |    |--C. flaccidum C16
    |    |--C. paludosum CV06
    |    |--C. rautanenianum CV06
    |    |--C. revolutum D59
    |    `--C. uniflorum LK14
    `--Narcissus HE80
         |--N. biflorus C55
         |--N. bulbocodium HE80
         |--N. cyclamineus V09
         |--N. hispanicus HE80
         |--N. × incomparabilis Miller 1768 [N. hispanicus × N. poeticus] HE80
         |--N. jonquilla HE80
         |--N. × medioluteus Miller 1768 [N. poeticus × N. tazetta] HE80
         |--N. × odorus [N. hispanicus × N. jonquilla] HE80
         |--N. poeticus Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |    |--N. p. var. poeticus HE80
         |    `--N. p. var. majalis HE80
         |--N. pseudonarcissus Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |    |--N. p. ssp. pseudonarcissus V09
         |    |--N. p. ssp. major V09
         |    `--N. p. ssp. obvallaris V09
         |--N. serotinus PT98
         `--N. tazetta Linnaeus 1753 HE80

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DVC08] Darbyshire, I., K. Vollesen & H. M. Chapman. 2008. A remarkable range disjunction recorded in Metarungia pubinervia (Acanthaceae). Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 613–615.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London).

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[V02] Vánky, K. 2002. The smut fungi of the world. A survey. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 49 (2–3): 163–175.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[YG03] Yadav, S. R., & S. P. Gaikwad. 2003. A revision of the Indian Aponogetonaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 39–76.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Last updated: 13 November 2018.

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