Jonquils Narcissus jonquilla, photographed by Tony Hall.

Belongs within: Liliidae.

The Amaryllidaceae are a family of bulb-producing plants that are most diverse in temperate and warm temperate regions. They are distinguished by having the inflorescence subtended by an involucre of one or more spathaceous bracts (Healy & Edgar 1980).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Clump-forming perennial herbs; bulb tunicate. Leaves few, basal, ± linear to lorate. Flowers bisexual, usually actinomorphic and umbellate, occasionally solitary; spathe of 1-2 valves, scarious, persistent or deciduous before maturity. Perianth petaloid, with or without tube, sometimes with corona. Stamens 6, opposite perianth-segments, inserted on them or free; filaments free, or expanded at base and connate. Ovary inferior; style slender, with capitate or three-lobed stigma; ovules usually many. Fruit a capsule, or fleshy and indehiscent.

<==Amaryllidaceae [Amaryllidales, Amaryllidineae]
    |--Eurycles amboinensis P88
    |--Milula spicata O88
    |--Leucojum aestivum Linnaeus 1759 HE80
    |--Zephyranthes candida HE80
    |--Vallota speciosa HE80
    |--Amaryllis belladonna Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |--Pancratium Y98
    |    |--P. biflorum P03
    |    |--P. maritimum Y98
    |    `--P. triflorum YG03
    |--Ammocharis nerinoides CV06
    |--Haemanthus avasmontanus CV06
    |--Namaquanula bruynsii CV06
    |--Strumaria CV06
    |    |--S. hardyana CV06
    |    `--S. phonolithica CV06
    |--Hippeastrum J87
    |    |--H. aulicum D59
    |    `--H. puniceum J87
    |--Nerine HE80
    |    |--N. filifolia HE80
    |    |--N. pusilla CV06
    |    `--N. sarniensis [=Amaryllis sarniensis] C55
    |--Crinum CV06
    |    |--C. amoenum BB07
    |    |--C. asiaticum P88
    |    |--C. capense D59
    |    |--C. paludosum CV06
    |    |--C. rautanenianum CV06
    |    `--C. revolutum D59
    `--Narcissus HE80
         |--N. biflorus C55
         |--N. bulbocodium HE80
         |--N. hispanicus HE80
         |--N. × incomparabilis Miller 1768 [N. hispanicus × N. poeticus] HE80
         |--N. jonquilla HE80
         |--N. × medioluteus Miller 1768 [N. poeticus × N. tazetta] HE80
         |--N. × odorus [N. hispanicus × N. jonquilla] HE80
         |--N. poeticus Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |    |--N. p. var. poeticus HE80
         |    `--N. p. var. majalis HE80
         |--N. pseudonarcissus Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |--N. serotinus PT98
         `--N. tazetta Linnaeus 1753 HE80

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[YG03] Yadav, S. R. & S. P. Gaikwad. 2003. A revision of the Indian Aponogetonaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 39-76.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

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