Agavaceae

Cabbage tree Cordyline australis, photographed by Jade.


Belongs within: Liliidae.

The Agavaceae are a family of narrow-leaved flowering plants, usually bearing flowers in large panicles. Leaves may be succulent or fibrous; in species of Yucca and Furcraea, the margins of the leaves are serrate or toothed. Members of the genera Furcraea, Agave and Yucca also have sharp, horny tips to the leaves (Healy & Edgar 1980). Many species are popular as garden plants; species of Agave are also grown for fibre or for their sap (used as a sweetener or in making alcoholic drinks).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Robust, arborescent or tufted perennials, with rootstock or rhizome. Stem stout, woody, short or sometimes forming heavy trunk. Leaves narrow, usually simple, often thick, usually crowded towards apex of stem. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate, sometimes large; branches subtended by bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic; perianth-segments 6, unequal to subequal, ± connate into tube. Stamens 6, shortly adnate to segments; filaments free; anthers introrse, linear, usually dorsifixed, bilocular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Ovary superior or inferior, often beaked, trilocular; placentae axile; style simple; ovules solitary in each locule, or superposed in two series. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds few to many, compressed.

<==Agavaceae [Agavales]
    |--Dasylirion RS99
    |    |--D. leiophyllum SZ03
    |    `--D. wheeleri B14
    |--Furcraea RS99
    |    |--F. foetida (Linnaeus) Haworth 1812 HE80
    |    |--F. gigantea [=Fourcroyia gigantea] RS99
    |    `--F. longaeva HE80
    |--Dracaena K03
    |    |--D. afromontana K09
    |    |--D. aurantiaca P88
    |    |--D. draco W86
    |    |--D. elliptica K03
    |    |--D. maingayi P88
    |    |--D. sanderiana MH98
    |    `--D. terminalis C55
    |--Agave HE80
    |    |--A. americana Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |    |--A. antillarum J87
    |    |--A. lecheguilla MB86
    |    |--A. sisalina H06
    |    |--A. tequilana G69
    |    |--A. victoria M93
    |    `--A. weberi K03
    |--Yucca RS99
    |    |--Y. baccata RS99
    |    |--Y. brevifolia RS99
    |    |--Y. carnerosana MB86
    |    |--Y. filamentosa WM14
    |    |--Y. filifera MB86
    |    |--Y. glauca RS99
    |    |--Y. gloriosa HE80
    |    |--Y. harrimaniae RS99
    |    |--Y. schidigera RS99
    |    `--Y. whipplei PL12
    `--Cordyline Comm. ex Juss. 1789 (nom. cons.) ME70
         |--*C. terminalis (Linnaeus) Kunth 1850 ME70, HE80
         |--C. australis (Forster) Endlicher 1833 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. banksii Hooker 1860 HE80 [incl. C. beuckelaerii Koch 1865 ME70, C. diffusa Col. 1883 ME70]
         |--C. forsteri Muell. 1878 (n. d.) ME70
         |--C. fruticosa K03
         |--C. × gibbingsae Carse 1929 [C. banksii × C. pumilio] ME70
         |--C. indivisa (Forster) Steudel 1840 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. kaspar Oliver 1956 HE80
         |--C. × matthewsii Carse 1927 [C. australis × C. pumilio] C27
         |--C. obtecta (Graham) Baker 1875 ME70
         |--C. pumilio Hooker 1860 HE80
         |--C. stricta D95
         `--C. sturmii Col. 1883 (n. d.) ME70

Cordyline australis (Forster) Endlicher 1833 HE80 [=Dracaena australis Forster 1786 ME70, Dracaenopsis australis (Forster) Planch. 1850–1851 ME70; incl. Dracaenopsis calocoma Wendland 1859 ME70, Cordyline calocoma (Wendland) Hort. ex Baker 1875 ME70, C. lentiginosa Linden & Andre 1870 ME70, C. superbiens Koch 1859 ME70, C. veitchii Regel 1871 ME70]

Cordyline indivisa (Forster) Steudel 1840 HE80 [=Dracaena indivisa Forster 1786, Dracaenopsis indivisa (Forster) Planch. 1850–1851 ME70; incl. C. hectori Col. 1893 ME70, C. hookeri Kirk 1874 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C27] Carse, H. 1927. Botanical notes, with descriptions of new species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 89–93.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477–487.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 240 pls.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K09] Kelbessa, E. 2009. Three new species of Acanthaceae from Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 57–65.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[ME70] Moore, L. B. & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.

[SZ03] Sobek, E. A., & J. C. Zak. 2003. The Soil FungiLog procedure: Method and analytical approaches toward understanding fungal functional diversity. Mycologia 95 (4): 590–602.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

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