Alpinia carolinensis, from the Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.

Belongs within: Zingiberaceae.

The Alpinieae is a pantropical clade within the Zingiberaceae. The large genera Alpinia, Amomum and Etlingera within the Alpinieae appear to be polyphyletic and are in need of revision. Economically significant members of the group include green cardamom Elettaria cardamomum and Amomum species producing black cardamom.

Characters (from Kress et al. 2002): Evergreen; rhizomes fibrous; plane of distichy of leaves perpendicular to rhizome; extrafloral nectaries absent; lateral staminodes reduced or absent, labellum not connate to filament; filament medium, sometimes arching; anther crest petaloid or absent; ovary 3-locular; placentation axial or free central; fruits fleshy or indehiscent.

    |  i. s.: Aulotandra KPW02
    |         *Cyphostigma pulchellum KPW02
    |         Elettaria cardamomum KPW02, MM96
    |           |--E. c. var. cardamomum VM03
    |           `--E. c. var. major VM03
    |         Geostachys KPW02
    |         *Leptosolena haenkei KPW02
    |--+--+--‘Alpinia’ conchigera KPW02
    |  |  `--‘Alpinia’ galanga KPW02
    |  `--+--+--Amomum KPW02
    |     |  |    |--A. aculeatum CMT06
    |     |  |    |--A. fenzlii [=Hornstedtia fenzlii] CMT06
    |     |  |    |--A. glabrum KPW02
    |     |  |    |--A. longipetiolatum KPW02
    |     |  |    `--A. subulatum S02
    |     |  `--+--Paramomum petaloideum KPW02
    |     |     `--Elettariopsis KPW02
    |     |          |--E. kerbyi KPW02
    |     |          `--E. stenosiphon KPW02
    |     `--+--Aframomum KPW02
    |        |    |--A. daniellii KPW02
    |        |    `--+--A. angustifolium KPW02
    |        |       `--A. sceptrum KPW02
    |        `--Renealmia KPW02
    |             |  i. s.: R. densiflora J87
    |             |         R. jamaicensis J87
    |             |--R. battenbergiana KPW02
    |             `--+--R. cernua KPW02
    |                `--+--R. alpina KPW02
    |                   `--R. thyrsoidea KPW02
    `--+--Alpinia KPW02
       |    |  i. s.: A. formosana E62
       |    |         A. javanica P88
       |    |         A. manii CMT06
       |    |         A. nigra BB07
       |    |         A. purpurata DS04
       |    |         A. zerumbet H06
       |    |--A. carolinensis KPW02
       |    `--+--A. foxworthyi KPW02
       |       `--+--Plagiostachys KPW02
       |          `--+--+--A. calcarata KPW02
       |             |  `--A. officinarum KPW02
       |             `--+--A. blepharocalyx KPW02
       |                `--+--A. intermedia KPW02
       |                   `--A. pumila KPW02
       `--+--+--‘Amomum’ villosum KPW02
          |  `--‘Etlingera’ littoralis KPW02
          `--+--Hornstedtia KPW02
             |    |--H. hainanensis KPW02
             |    `--H. scyphifera P88
             `--+--Etlingera KPW02
                |    |--E. elatior KPW02 [=Nicolaia elatior P88]
                |    `--E. yunnanensis KPW02
                `--+--‘Alpinia’ vittata KPW02
                   `--+--+--‘Alpinia’ elegans KPW02
                      |  `--‘Alpinia’ luteocarpa KPW02
                      `--Vanoverberghia KPW02
                           |--*V. sepulchrei KPW02
                           `--V. sasakiana KPW02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[CMT06] Chakrabarty, T., V. Maina & M. Tigga. 2006. Plants used in gathering honey by the Jarawas of Andaman Islands. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 205-206.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[E62] Ehara, S. 1962. Mites of greenhouse plants in Hokkaido, with a new species of Cheyletidae. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 35 (2): 106-111.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KPW02] Kress, W. J., L. M. Prince & K. J. Williams. 2002. The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers (Zingiberaceae): Evidence from molecular data. American Journal of Botany 89 (11): 1682-1696.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[S02] Smetacek, P. 2002. Notes on new records of hooktip moths, Lepidoptera: Drepanidae, from the Kumaon and Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 446-454.

[VM03] Viswanathan, M. B. & U. Manikandan. 2003. A new species of Balsaminaceae, Impatiens tirunelvelica, from peninsular India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 189-194.

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