Pinaceae

Norway spruce Picea abies, photographed by MPF.


Belongs within: Pinopsida.
Contains: Abies, Pinus subg. Pinus, Pinus subg. Strobus.

The Pinaceae include the pines (Pinus), spruces (Picea), cedars (Cedrus) and related taxa. This is a primarily Northern Hemisphere family, with some species being the dominant tree species within their range. Pinus species differ from other members of the family in having cones that are biennial or triennial, while other genera grow new cones each year. Members of the genus Picea, the spruces, have whorled branches with needles attached singly in a spiral pattern.

Characters (from J. W. Thieret): Trees (occasionally shrubs), evergreen (annually deciduous in Larix), resinous and aromatic, monoecious. Bark smooth to scaly or furrowed. Lateral branches well developed and similar to leading (long) shoots or reduced to well-defined short (spur) shoots (Pinus, Larix); twigs terete, sometimes clothed by persistent primary leaves or leaf bases; longest internodes less than 1cm; buds conspicuous. Roots fibrous to woody, unspecialized. Leaves (needles) simple, shed singly (except whole fascicles shed in Pinus), alternate and spirally arranged but sometimes proximally twisted so as to appear 1- or 2-ranked, or fascicled, linear to needlelike, sessile to short-petiolate; foliage leaves either borne singly (spirally) on long shoots or in tufts (fascicles) on short shoots; juvenile leaves (when present) borne on long shoots, scalelike; resin canals present. Pollen cones maturing and shed annually, solitary or clustered, axillary, ovoid to ellipsoid or cylindric; sporophylls overlapping, bearing 2 abaxial microsporangia (pollen sacs); pollen spheric, 2-winged, less commonly with wings reduced to frill (in Tsuga sect. Tsuga), or not winged (in Larix and Pseudotsuga). Seed cones maturing and shed in 1-3 seasons or long-persistent, sometimes serotinous (not opening upon maturity but much later: Pinus), compound, axillary, solitary or grouped; scales overlapping, free from subtending included or exserted bracts for most of length, spirally arranged, strongly flattened, at maturity relatively thin to strongly thickened and woody (in Pinus), with 2 inverted, adaxial ovules. Seeds 2 per scale, elongate terminal wing partially decurrent on seed body (wing short or absent in some species of Pinus); aril lacking; cotyledons 2-12[-18].

<==Pinaceae [Abietaceae, Abietinae, Pinales]
    |  i. s.: Pinites succinifer Göppert 1836 E01 [=Pinus succinifera P02]
    |         Nothotsuga CD07
    |         Compsostrobus neotericus MM12
    |--Cedrus EH06
    |    |--C. atlantica C55
    |    |--C. brevifolia D30
    |    |--C. deodara EH06
    |    `--C. libani C55
    `--+--+--+--Abies EH06
       |  |  `--Keteleeria EH06
       |  |       |--K. davidiana EH06
       |  |       `--K. evelyniana MM12
       |  `--+--Pseudolarix amabilis EH06
       |     `--Tsuga EH06
       |          |--T. canadensis SS96
       |          |--T. chinensis CP02
       |          |--T. dumosa SN88
       |          |--T. heterophylla C90
       |          |--T. mertensiana EH06
       |          `--T. sieboldii [incl. Abies tsuga] LO98
       `--+--+--Pseudotsuga EH06
          |  |    |--P. douglasii B88
          |  |    |--P. macrocarpa B14
          |  |    |--P. menziesii EH06
          |  |    `--P. taxifolia SW03
          |  `--Larix EH06
          |       |--L. decidua EH06
          |       |--L. gmelinii L02
          |       |--L. groenlandii TH03
          |       |--L. himalaica SN88
          |       |--L. kaempferi T85 [incl. L. leptolepis LO98]
          |       `--L. laricina TH03
          `--+--+--Cathaya argyrophylla EH06
             |  `--Picea EH06
             |       |--P. abies EH06
             |       |--P. alcoquiana [incl. Abies menziessi] LO98
             |       |--P. engelmanni M61
             |       |--P. excelsa M47
             |       |--P. glauca BFD01
             |       |--P. jezoensis JKW03
             |       |--P. mariana BFD01
             |       |--P. morrisonicola MM12
             |       |--P. rubens SR03
             |       |--P. sitchensis L81
             |       `--P. smithiana SN88
             `--+--Pityostrobus bernissartensis MM12
                `--Pinus EH06
                     |  i. s.: P. ayacahuite CG05
                     |         P. cooperi CG05
                     |         P. fenzeliana L02
                     |         P. kochiana CK05
                     |         P. luchuensis SM03
                     |         P. maritima C55
                     |         P. montana SR03
                     |         P. occidentalis J87
                     |         P. palaeostrobus S89
                     |         P. pallasiana CK05
                     |         P. pringlei CG05
                     |         P. rudis CG05
                     |         P. uncinata C55
                     |--P. subg. Pinus EH06
                     `--P. subg. Strobus EH06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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