Orchidantha longiflora, photographed by Tai Lung Aik.

Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Zingiberaceae.

The Zingiberales are a clade of mostly very large-leaved tropical herbaceous plants. Prominent members include the bananas of the genus Musa and the birds of paradise of the genus Strelitzia. Species of Canna, Indian shot, are commonly cultivated for their broad foliage and showy flowers.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Giant herbs; no aerial stem except when flowering; SiO2 in bundle sheath; sieve tube plastids also with starch grains; petiole bundles in arcs; guard cells symmetric; cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets; leaves with distinct petiole, midrib, S-shaped lateral veins and fine cross venation; inflorescence bracts large, persistent; flowers large (>2 cm long), monosymmetric; calyx and corolla combined as tepals; stamens 5, opposite each tepal, adaxial member of inner whorl absent or staminodial; anthers long (>5 mm long); pollen inaperturate, exine at most thin, spinulose, to absent; outer intine thick, channeled; gynoecium inferior, style long, stigma large, wet; ovule with outer integument ≥5 cells across, epidermal cells of nucellus apex radially elongated, suprachalazal tissue well developed; fruit opening laterally, loculicidal; seeds arillate, operculate; operculum testal, micropylar collar developing from outer integument, forming annular inpushing in perisperm surrounding operculum, endotesta sclerotised and silicified, thickening often U-shaped in t.s.; endosperm nuclear, perisperm s.l. present, reserves starchy, embryo plug-like; cotyledon not photosynthetic, ligulate, collar roots present; six nucleotide deletion in atpA.

<==Zingiberales [Cannales]
    |  i. s.: Tricostatocarpon silvapinedae R-R03
    |--Strelitziaceae [Strelitziineae] DS04
    |    |--Ravenala madagascariensis DS04
    |    |--Phenakospermum guyannense K06
    |    `--Strelitzia DS04
    |         |--S. nicolai DS04
    |         `--S. reginae BL04
    `--+--Canna [Cannaceae, Cannineae, Scitamineae] DS04
       |    |--C. × generalis H06
       |    |--C. glauca D37
       |    |--C. indica Linnaeus 1753 HE80
       |    `--C. jaegeriana J87
       |--Heliconia [Heliconiaceae, Heliconiineae] DS04
       |    |--H. bihai J87
       |    |--H. caribaea F11
       |    |--H. indica DS04
       |    |--H. metallica F11
       |    |--H. rostrata DS04
       |    `--H. wagneriana C09
       |--+--Zingiberaceae DS04
       |  `--Costaceae KPW02
       |       |--Tapeinochilos ananassae DS04
       |       `--+--+--Monocostus uniflorus DS04
       |          |  `--Dimerocostus argenteus DS04
       |          `--Costus DS04
       |               |--C. argyrophyllus W66
       |               |--C. lateriflorus DS04
       |               `--C. speciosus K03
       |--Orchidantha Brown 1886 PJ04 [Lowiaceae DS04, Lowiineae]
       |    |--O. borneensis Brown 1886 PJ04
       |    |--O. chinensis Wu 1964 PJ04
       |    |--O. fimbriata Holttum 1970 PJ04
       |    |--O. holttumii Larsen 1993 PJ04
       |    |--O. inouei Nagamasu & Sakai 1999 PJ04
       |    |--O. insularis Wu 1964 PJ04
       |    |--O. laotica Larsen 1961 PJ04
       |    |--O. longiflora [=Lowia longiflora Scortechini 1886] PJ04
       |    |--O. longisepala Fang & Qin 1996 PJ04
       |    |--O. maxillarioides [=Protamomum maxillarioides Ridley 1893] PJ04
       |    |--O. siamensis Larsen 1961 PJ04
       |    `--O. vietnamica Larsen 1973 PJ04
       `--Marantaceae DS04
            |  i. s.: Donax canniformis K03
            |--Maranta DS04
            |    |--M. bicolor DS04
            |    `--M. leuconeura DS04
            `--+--Calathea DS04
               |    |--C. loeseneri DS04
               |    |--C. lutea C09
               |    `--C. violacea A09
               `--Musa [Musaceae, Musineae] DS04
                    |--M. acuminata DS04
                    |--M. balbisiana B00
                    |--M. gracilis P88
                    |--M. paradisiaca C55
                    |--M. sapientum C55
                    |--M. textilis DS04
                    |--M. troglodytarum C55
                    |--M. truncata P88
                    `--M. violascens P88

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

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[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

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[R-R03] Rodriguez-de la Rosa, R. A. 2003. Pterosaur tracks from the latest Campanian Cerro del Pueblo Formation of sputheastern Coahuila, Mexico. In: Buffetaut, E., & J.-M. Mazin (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217: 275–282. The Geological Society: London.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

Last updated: 27 June 2018.

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