Orchidantha longiflora, photographed by Tai Lung Aik.

Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Zingiberaceae.

The Zingiberales are a clade of mostly very large-leaved tropical herbaceous plants. Prominent members include the bananas of the genus Musa and the birds of paradise of the genus Strelitzia.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Giant herbs; no aerial stem except when flowering; SiO2 in bundle sheath; sieve tube plastids also with starch grains; petiole bundles in arcs; guard cells symmetric; cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets; leaves with distinct petiole, midrib, S-shaped lateral veins and fine cross venation; inflorescence bracts large, persistent; flowers large (>2 cm long), monosymmetric; calyx and corolla combined as tepals; stamens 5, opposite each tepal, adaxial member of inner whorl absent or staminodial; anthers long (>5 mm long); pollen inaperturate, exine at most thin, spinulose, to absent; outer intine thick, channeled; gynoecium inferior, style long, stigma large, wet; ovule with outer integument ≥5 cells across, epidermal cells of nucellus apex radially elongated, suprachalazal tissue well developed; fruit opening laterally, loculicidal; seeds arillate, operculate; operculum testal, micropylar collar developing from outer integument, forming annular inpushing in perisperm surrounding operculum, endotesta sclerotised and silicified, thickening often U-shaped in t.s.; endosperm nuclear, perisperm s.l. present, reserves starchy, embryo plug-like; cotyledon not photosynthetic, ligulate, collar roots present; six nucleotide deletion in atpA.

<==Zingiberales [Cannales]
    |  i. s.: Tricostatocarpon silvapinedae R-R03
    |--Strelitziaceae [Strelitziineae] DS04
    |    |--Ravenala madagascariensis DS04
    |    |--Phenakospermum guyannense K06
    |    `--Strelitzia DS04
    |         |--S. nicolai DS04
    |         `--S. reginae BL04
    `--+--Heliconia [Heliconiaceae, Heliconiineae] DS04
       |    |--H. bihai J87
       |    |--H. indica DS04
       |    `--H. rostrata DS04
       |--Canna [Cannineae] DS04
       |    |--C. × generalis H06
       |    |--C. glauca D37
       |    |--C. indica Linnaeus 1753 HE80
       |    `--C. jaegeriana J87
       |--+--Zingiberaceae DS04
       |  `--Costaceae KPW02
       |       |--Tapeinochilos ananassae DS04
       |       `--+--+--Monocostus uniflorus DS04
       |          |  `--Dimerocostus argenteus DS04
       |          `--Costus DS04
       |               |--C. argyrophyllus W66
       |               |--C. lateriflorus DS04
       |               `--C. speciosus K03
       |--Orchidantha Brown 1886 PL04 [Lowiaceae DS04, Lowiineae]
       |    |--O. borneensis Brown 1886 PJ04
       |    |--O. chinensis Wu 1964 PJ04
       |    |--O. fimbriata Holttum 1970 PJ04
       |    |--O. holttumii Larsen 1993 PJ04
       |    |--O. inouei Nagamasu & Sakai 1999 PJ04
       |    |--O. insularis Wu 1964 PJ04
       |    |--O. laotica Larsen 1961 PJ04
       |    |--O. longiflora [=Lowia longiflora Scortechini 1886] PJ04
       |    |--O. longisepala Fang & Qin 1996 PJ04
       |    |--O. maxillarioides [=Protamomum maxillarioides Ridley 1893] PJ04
       |    |--O. siamensis Larsen 1961 PJ04
       |    `--O. vietnamica Larsen 1973 PJ04
       `--Marantaceae DS04
            |  i. s.: Donax canniformis K03
            |--Maranta DS04
            |    |--M. bicolor DS04
            |    `--M. leuconeura DS04
            `--+--Calathea loeseneri DS04
               `--Musa [Musaceae, Musineae] DS04
                    |--M. acuminata DS04
                    |--M. gracilis P88
                    |--M. paradisiaca C55
                    |--M. sapientum C55
                    |--M. textilis DS04
                    |--M. troglodytarum C55
                    |--M. truncata P88
                    `--M. violascens P88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KPW02] Kress, W. J., L. M. Prince & K. J. Williams. 2002. The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers (Zingiberaceae): Evidence from molecular data. American Journal of Botany 89 (11): 1682-1696.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[PJ04] Pedersen, L. B., & B. Johansen. 2004. Anatomy of the unusual stigma in Orchidantha (Lowiaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 299-305.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R-R03] Rodriguez-de la Rosa, R. A. 2003. Pterosaur tracks from the latest Campanian Cerro del Pueblo Formation of sputheastern Coahuila, Mexico. In Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs (E. Buffetaut & J.-M. Mazin, eds) Geological Society Special Publications 217: 275-282. The Geological Society: London.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537-556.

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