Mountain cabbage palm Prestoea montana, photographed by Jose D. Alicea.

Belongs within: Arecaceae.

The Arecoideae is the largest of the generally recognised palm subfamilies, containing about 1100 species. Notable members include the coconut Cocos nucifera, widely grown in tropical regions of the world for their large edible seeds, as well as for fibres from the leaves and fruit.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Hypodermal cells hexagonal, transversely elongate; flowers in triads or in two vertical rows; style branches separate; n = 16.

    |--Chamaedorea [Chamaedoreeae] HB09
    |    |--C. carchensis HB09
    |    `--C. microcarpa MH98
    |--Iriarteeae HB09
    |    |--Iriartea exerrhiza HB09, DS86
    |    `--Dictyocaryum HB09
    |--Euterpeae HB09
    |    |--Euterpe Z03
    |    |    |--E. edulis DS86
    |    |    `--E. oleracea DS04
    |    `--Prestoea HB09
    |         |--P. longepetiolata Z03
    |         |    |--P. l. var. longepetiolata Z03
    |         |    `--P. l. var. cuatrecasasii Z03
    |         |--P. montana [incl. Euterpe globosa] J87
    |         `--P. pubens Z03
    |--Cocoseae HB09
    |    |  i. s.: Cocos B88
    |    |           |--C. nucifera K03
    |    |           `--C. yattae B88
    |    |--Bactridinae HB09
    |    |    |--Bactris Z93
    |    |    |    |--B. gasipaes Z93
    |    |    |    `--B. utilis C38
    |    |    `--Aiphanes eggersii HB09, BBB03
    |    `--Attaleinae HB09
    |         |--Voanioala HB09
    |         `--Attalea HB09
    |              |--A. butyracea F11
    |              |--A. cohune G69
    |              |--A. maripa B14
    |              `--A. phalerata HSS13
    `--Areceae HB09
         |--Clinostigma HB09
         |--Nenga HB09
         |--Iguanura HB09
         |--Areca catechu HB09
         |--Hydriastele HB09
         |    |--H. costata HB09
         |    `--H. wendlandiana B00a
         |--Heterospathe [incl. Barkerwebbia Beccari 1905] TB08
         |    |--H. compsoclada (Burret) Heatubun in Heatubun, Baker et al. 2009 (see below for synonymy) HB09
         |    |--H. elegans (Beccari) Beccari 1909 (see below for synonymy) TB08
         |    |    |--H. e. ssp. elegans [incl. H. versteegiana Beccari 1909] TB08
         |    |    `--H. e. ssp. humilis (Beccari) Trudgen & Baker 2008 (see below for synonymy) TB08
         |    |--H. lepidota Moore 1969 TB08
         |    `--H. pullenii Trudgen & Baker 2008 TB08
         `--Cyrtostachys Blume 1838 [Cyrtostachydinae] HB09
              |  i. s.: C. ledermanniana Beccari 1923 HB09
              |--C. glauca Moore 1966 HB09
              `--+--*C. renda Blume 1838 (see below for synonymy) HB09
                 |--C. bakeri Heatubun in Heatubun, Baker et al. 2009 HB09
                 |--C. barbata Heatubun in Heatubun, Baker et al. 2009 HB09
                 |--C. elegans Burret 1937 HB09
                 |--C. excelsa Heatubun in Heatubun, Baker et al. 2009 HB09
                 `--C. loriae Beccari 1905 (see below for synonymy) HB09

Arecoideae incertae sedis:
  Wettinia Z03
  Reinhardtia Z03
  Dypsis Z03
  Neonicholsonia Z03
  Archontophoenix Z03
    |--A. alexandrae E99
    `--A. cunninghamiana B00a
  Laccospadix australasica Z03, B00a
  Calyptrocalyx Z03
  Drymophloeus [incl. Coleospadix] Z03
  Normanbya normabyi Z03, Z93
  Adonidia Z03
  Ptychosperma Z03
    |--P. bleeseri B00a
    |--P. elegans [incl. P. capitis-yorkii] Z03
    `--P. macarthurii B00a
  Loxococcus Z03
  Lemurophoenix Z03
  Siphokentia Z03
  Gulubia Z03
  Pinanga rumphiana Z03, HB09
  Rhopaloblaste Z03
    |--R. ceramica (Miq.) Burret 1928 [=Cyrtostachys ceramica (Miq.) Wendl. in Kerch. 1878] HB09
    `--R. ledermanniana HB09
  Dictyosperma album Z03, Z93
  Actinorhytis Z03
  Physokentia Z03
  Oncosperma tigillarium Z03, K03
  Verschaffeltia Z03
  Roscheria Z03
  Phoenicophorium Z03
  Nephrospermum Z03
  Beccariophoenix Z03
  Lytocaryum Z03
  Polyandrococos Z03
  Syagrus [incl. Rhyticocos] Z03
    |--S. coronata B04
    `--S. romanzoffiana Z93
  Oenocarpus [incl. Jessenia] Z03
    |--‘Jessenia’ batana DS86
    `--O. mapora SDK-L03
  Ptychococcus Z03
    |--P. arecinus [=Ptychosperma arecina Beccari 1877] Z03
    |--P. lepidotus Z03
    `--P. paradoxus (see below for synonymy) Z03
  Caryota Z03
    |--C. albertii B00b
    |--C. mitis P88
    |--C. no P88
    `--C. obtusifolia P88
         |--C. o. var. obtusifolia P88
         `--C. o. var. aequatorialis P88

Cyrtostachys loriae Beccari 1905 [incl. C. brassii Burret 1935, C. kisu Beccari 1914, C. microcarpa Burret 1939, C. peekeliana Beccari 1914, C. phanerolepis Burret 1936] HB09

*Cyrtostachys renda Blume 1838 [=Bentinckia renda (Blume) Mart. 1853; incl. Ptychosperma coccinea Teijsm. & Binn. 1866 (n. n.), Areca erythrocarpa Wendl. in Kerch. 1878 (n. n.), A. erythropoda Miq. 1861, Cyrtostachys lakka Becc. 1885, Pinanga purpurea Miq. 1861 (nom. inv.), P. rubricaulis Linden 1885 (n. n.), Cyrtostachys lakka var. singaporensis Becc. 1885] HB09

Heterospathe compsoclada (Burret) Heatubun in Heatubun, Baker et al. 2009 [=Cyrtostachys compsoclada Burret 1936] HB09

Heterospathe elegans (Beccari) Beccari 1909 [=*Barkerwebbia elegans Beccari 1905, B. elongata (l. c.), Heterospathe elongata (l. c.)] TB08

Heterospathe elegans ssp. humilis (Beccari) Trudgen & Baker 2008 [=H. humilis Beccari 1914, Barkerwebbia humilis (Beccari) Beccari ex Martelli 1935] TB08

Ptychococcus paradoxus [=Drymophloeus paradoxus Scheffer 1876, Ptychosperma paradoxa (Scheffer) Scheffer 1876] Z03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBB03] Barfod, A. S., T. Burholt & F. Borchsenius. 2003. Contrasting pollination modes in three species of Licuala (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae). Telopea 10 (1): 207–223.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1–42.

[C38] Crawford, J. C. 1938. A new genus and species of Thysanoptera from greenhouses. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (4): 109–111.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R. & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440–2755. Myconet 2: 1–41.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[HB09] Heatubun, C. D., W. J. Baker, J. P. Mogea, M. M. Harley, S. S. Tjitrosoedirdjo & J. Dransfield. 2009. A monograph of Cyrtostachys (Arecaceae). Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 67–94.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SDK-L03] Saw, L. G., J. Dransfield & D. M. Keith-Lucas. 2003. Morphological diversity of the genus Licuala (Palmae). Telopea 10 (1): 187–206.

[TB08] Trudgen, M. S., & W. J. Baker. 2008. A revision of the Heterospathe elegans (Arecaceae) complex in New Guinea. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 639–647.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

[Z03] Zona, S. 2003. Endosperm condition and the paradox of Ptychococcus paradoxus. Telopea 10 (1): 179–185.

Last updated: 13 November 2018.

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