Flowers of swizzlestick tree Quararibea turbinata, photographed by tropicalgardener1. The common name of this tree refers to the use of aromatic sticks taken from the tree in preparing cocktails.

Belongs within: Malvaceae.
Contains: Sidalcea, Sida, Eumalvoideae.

The Malvoideae as defined here includes the traditional Malvaceae sensu stricto plus some basal taxa that were previously placed in the Bombacaceae. The clade was defined by Baum et al. (1998) as including all taxa closer to Malva sylvestris than Bombax ceiba. Possible members of this clade include the Fremontodendreae, two genera of trees and shrubs found in southern North America with a distinctive quincuncial arrangement of sepals (S. R. Hinsley). The Matisieae are a Neotropical group of trees with simple ovate or elliptical leaves, often zygomorphic flowers with a long staminal tube, and drupaceous fruits.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Petiole bundle annular; median calyx often abaxial, corolla basally connate to free; androecium from 5 antepetalous primordia, centrifugal, tube often with 5 apical teeth; tapetum plasmodial; pollen often spiny, 7+ porate; styles often separate, stigmas decurrent to capitate, hairy; ovules 1-many/carpel, campylotropous (rarely anatropous), outer integument 2-6 cells across, inner integument 4-8(-15) cells across, parietal tissue 2-7 cells across; embryo curved (rarely straight), cotyledons folded; n = 5-20(+).

<==Malvoideae [Metamalvaceae]
    |--Fremontodendreae BS04
    |    |--Fremontodendron californicum BS04, BAN98
    |    `--Chiranthodendron pentadactylon BS04, BAN98
    `--+--Matisieae BS04
       |    |--Quararibea BS04
       |    |    |--Q. guianensis BAN98
       |    |    `--Q. turbinata SWK87
       |    `--+--Phragmotheca siderosa BS04, BAN98
       |       `--Matisia cordata BS04, BAN98
       `--+--Pentaplaris BS04
          `--+--Radyera BS04
             `--+--Eumalvoideae BS04
                `--+--Uladendron BS04
                   `--+--Camptostemon schultzii BS04, C78
                      `--+--Howittia BS04
                         `--Lagunaria patersonii BS04, BAN98

Malvoideae incertae sedis:
  Sidalcea PT01
  Cephalohibiscus H03
  Kydia calycina YY22, P03
  Napaea YY22
  Anoda RN-F01
    |--A. cristata RN-F01
    `--A. hastata J87
  Lawrencia G04
    |--L. densiflora KM08
    |--L. spicata GK00
    `--L. viridigrisea KM08
  Althea PT01
    |--A. cannabina H91
    |--A. hirsuta PT98
    `--A. officinalis PT01
  Urena K03
    |--U. americana [incl. U. reticulata] C55
    `--U. lobata K03
  Alcea Y98
    |--A. biennis PT98
    `--A. rosea Y98
  Sida G04
  Plagianthus Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |--P. betulinus Cunningham 1840 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--P. b. var. betulinus A61
    |    `--P. b. chathamicus Cockayne 1912 [=P. chathamicus Cockayne 1902] A61
    |--P. × cymosus Kirk 1899 [P. betulinus × P. divaricatus] A61
    |--P. divaricatus Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    `--P. regius WH02
  Sphaeralcea J87
    |--S. abutiloides J87
    `--S. coccinea CL86

Plagianthus betulinus Cunningham 1840 [incl. Philippodendron regium Poit. 1837, Pl. urticinus Cunnigham 1840] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315-330.

[BS04] Baum, D. A., S. D. Smith, A. Yen, W. S. Alverson, R. Nyffeler, B. A. Whitlock & R. L. Oldham. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Malvatheca (Bombacoideae and Malvoideae; Malvaceae sensu lato) as inferred from plastid DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 91: 1863-1871.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85-93.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[RN-F01] Rendón, B., & J. Núñez-Farfán. 2001. Population differentiation and phenotypic plasticity of wild and agrestal populations of the annual Anoda cristata (Malvaceae) growing in two contrasting habitats. Plant Ecology 156: 205-213.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

Last updated: 16 April 2020.

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