Flowers of swizzlestick tree Quararibea turbinata, photographed by tropicalgardener1.

Belongs within: Malvaceae.
Contains: Eumalvoideae.

The Malvoideae as defined here include the traditional Malvaceae sensu stricto plus some basal taxa that were previously placed in the Bombacaceae. The clade was defined by Baum et al. (1998) as including all taxa closer to Malva sylvestris than Bombax ceiba. Possible members of this clade include the Fremontodendreae, two genera of trees and shrubs found in southern North America with a distinctive quincuncial arrangement of sepals (S. R. Hinsley). The Matisieae are a Neotropical group of trees with simple ovate or elliptical leaves, often zygomorphic flowers with a long staminal tube, and drupaceous fruits. The swizzlestick tree Quararibea turbinata produces aromatic wood that is used to flavour drinks.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Petiole bundle annular; median calyx often abaxial, corolla basally connate to free; androecium from 5 antepetalous primordia, centrifugal, tube often with 5 apical teeth; tapetum plasmodial; pollen often spiny, 7+ porate; styles often separate, stigmas decurrent to capitate, hairy; ovules 1-many/carpel, campylotropous (rarely anatropous), outer integument 2-6 cells across, inner integument 4-8(-15) cells across, parietal tissue 2-7 cells across; embryo curved (rarely straight), cotyledons folded; n = 5-20(+).

<==Malvoideae [Metamalvaceae]
    |--Fremontodendreae BS04
    |    |--Chiranthodendron pentadactylon BS04, BAN98
    |    `--Fremontodendron BS04
    |         |--F. californicum BAN98
    |         |    |--F. c. ssp. californicum (see below for synonymy) H93
    |         |    `--F. c. ssp. decumbens H93
    |         `--F. mexicanum H93
    `--+--Matisieae BS04
       |    |--Quararibea BS04
       |    |    |--Q. guianensis BAN98
       |    |    `--Q. turbinata SWK87
       |    `--+--Phragmotheca siderosa BS04, BAN98
       |       `--Matisia cordata BS04, BAN98
       `--+--Pentaplaris BS04
          `--+--Radyera farragei BS04, H90 [=Hibiscus farragei H90]
             `--+--Eumalvoideae BS04
                `--+--Uladendron BS04
                   `--+--Camptostemon schultzii BS04, LK14
                      `--+--Howittia trilocularis BS04, H90
                         `--Lagunaria patersonii BS04, BAN98

Fremontodendron californicum ssp. californicum [incl. F. californicum ssp. crassifolium, F. californicum ssp. napense, F. californicum ssp. obispoense] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[BS04] Baum, D. A., S. D. Smith, A. Yen, W. S. Alverson, R. Nyffeler, B. A. Whitlock & R. L. Oldham. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Malvatheca (Bombacoideae and Malvoideae; Malvaceae sensu lato) as inferred from plastid DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 91: 1863–1871.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

Last updated: 25 July 2021.

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