Menispermaceae

Broom creeper Cocculus hirsutus, photographed by B. Wursten.


Belongs within: Ranunculales.

The Menispermaceae, the moonseeds, are a plant family primarily composed of vines and lianas, though some species are trees or shrubs. A number of species contain alkaloids; a species of Chondrodendron is a significant source of the neurotoxin curare.

Characters (from D. G. Rhodes): Vines and lianas (occasionally shrubs or trees), deciduous, woody at least at base, twining or clambering. Stems striate, without spines. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent; petioles present. Leaf blade palmately veined, often palmately lobed. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, fascicles, cymes, racemes, or panicles, flowers pedicillate. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on different plants, never showy; sepaloid bracteoles absent; perianth hypogynous, segments distinct or fused, not showy, greenish white to white or cream, imbricate or valvate. Staminate flowers: sepals usually 6, not spurred; petals usually 6, sometimes absent, distinct or connate, ± concave, frequently minute; nectaries absent; stamens either opposite petals and equal in number, or numerous; filaments distinct or united; anthers dehiscing longitudinally (rarely transversely); pistillodes sometimes present. Pistillate flowers: sepals (4-)6, sometimes reduced to 1; petals often 6 or reduced to 1, ± concave, usually minute; nectaries absent; staminodes frequently present; pistils 1-6; ovules 2, aborting to 1, amphitropous; style often recurved; stigma entire or lobed. Fruits drupes, straight or horseshoe-shaped; exocarp membranous; mesocarp ± pulpy; endocarp (stone) bony, often warty, ribbed. Seeds never stalked; endosperm present or absent; embryo usually curved.

Menispermaceae
    |--Coscinium fenestratum K03
    |--Fibraruea tinctoria K03
    |--Stephania corymbosa K03
    |--Tinospora K03
    |    |--T. cordifolia BB07
    |    |--T. crispa K03
    |    `--T. sinensis SR07
    |--Pycnarrhena tumetacta K03
    |--Legnephora H03
    |--Albertisia YY22
    |--Parabaena YY22
    |--Abuta YY22
    |--Adeliopsis YY22
    |--Anamirta cocculus UB06
    |--Anomospermum YY22
    |--Antizoma YY22
    |--Arcangelisia YY22
    |--Aristega YY22
    |--Aspidocarya YY22
    |--Bania YY22
    |--Burasaia YY22
    |--Calycocarpum YY22
    |--Carronia YY22
    |--Chasmanthera YY22
    |--Chelonecarya YY22
    |--Chlaenandra YY22
    |--Chondrodendron YY22
    |--Cocculus YY22
    |    |--C. hirsutus PP07
    |    |--C. pendulus PP07
    |    `--C. villosus KJ05
    |--Cyclea peltata UB06
    |--Desmonema YY22
    |--Dioscoreophyllum YY22
    |--Diploclisia YY22
    |--Disciphania YY22
    |--Elissarrhena YY22
    |--Epinetrum YY22
    |--Fawcettia YY22
    |--Gamopoda YY22
    |--Glossopholis YY22
    |--Haematocarpus YY22
    |--Heptacyclum YY22
    |--Husemannia YY22
    |--Hyperbaena YY22
    |--Hypserpa YY22
    |--Hypsiodes YY22
    |--Jateorhiza YY22
    |--Kolobopetalum YY22
    |--Limaciopsis YY22
    |--Macrococculus YY22
    |--Miersiophytum YY22
    |--Menispermum YY22
    |--Odontocarya YY22
    |--Orthogynium YY22
    |--Pachygone YY22
    |--Penianthus YY22
    |--Peraphora YY22
    |--Pericampylus YY22
    |--Perichasma YY22
    |--Platytinospora YY22
    |--Pleogyne YY22
    |--Pselium YY22
    |--Pycnostyles YY22
    |--Rameya YY22
    |--Rhaptonema YY22
    |--Rhigiocarya YY22
    |--Rhopalandria YY22
    |--Sarcopetalum YY22
    |--Sciadotaenia YY22
    |--Sinomenium YY22
    |--Somphoxylon YY22
    |--Sphenocentrum YY22
    |--Spirospermum YY22
    |--Strychnopsis YY22
    |--Sychnosepalum YY22
    |--Synclisia YY22
    |--Syntriandrum YY22
    |--Syrrheonema YY22
    |--Taubertia YY22
    |--Telotia YY22
    |--Tiliacora acuminata YY22, HU08
    |--Tinomiscium YY22
    |--Triclisia YY22
    |--Tripodandra YY22
    |--Welwitschiina YY22
    `--Cissampelos MM96
         |--C. pareira J87
         `--C. tropaeolifolium MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251-258.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121-130.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[UB06] Udayan, P. S. & I. Balachandran. 2006. Cleistanthus sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach.—a rare and little known endemic plant rediscovered from wild populations in Kollam district of Kerala state, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 217-218.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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