Philodendron insigne, copyright Bernard Dupont.

Belongs within: Araceae.
Contains: Arisaema.

The Aroideae is a clade within the family Araceae with the spadix (flower-spike) divided into a male and female region. Members of the Aroideae except the Zamioculcadeae are united by the presence of lactifers and of pollen with a thin thin ectexine, thick and spongy endexine and massive intine (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Notable members of the clade include taro Colocasia esculenta, widely grown for its edible corms.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, as 'Zamioculcadoideae + Aroideae'): Spathe differentiated into tube plus blade, spadix differentiated into zones with staminate and carpellate flowers; flowers imperfect; pollen inaperturate.

    |--Zamioculcas [Zamioculcadeae] TB04
    |    `--Z. zamiifolia TB04
    `--+--+--Nephthytideae TB04
       |  |    |--Anchomanes difformis TB04
       |  |    `--Nephthytis afzelii TB04
       |  `--Aglaonema [Aglaonemateae] TB04
       |       |--A. griffithii P88
       |       |--A. modestum TB04
       |       `--A. oblongifolium K03
       `--+--Anubias [Anubiadeae] TB04
          |    `--A. barteri TB04
          |         |--A. b. var. barteri TB04
          |         `--A. b. var. caladiifolia TB04
          |--+--Culcasieae TB04
          |  |    |--Culcasia saxatilis TB04
          |  |    `--+--Cercestis stigmaticus TB04
          |  |       `--Rhektophyllum mirabile TB04
          |  `--+--Dieffenbachia [Dieffenbachieae] TB04
          |     |    `--D. pittieri TB04
          |     `--Spathicarpa [Spathicarpeae] TB04
          |          `--S. sagittifolia TB04
          |--+--Montrichardia [Montrichardieae] TB04
          |  |    `--M. arborescens [incl. M. aculeata] BTA75
          |  `--+--Homalomena [Homalomeneae] TB04
          |     |    |--H. propinga K03
          |     |    `--H. rubescens TB04
          |     `--Philodendron [Philodendreae, Philodendroideae] TB04
          |          |  i. s.: P. callosum NS06
          |          |         P. consanguineum J87
          |          |         P. sinuatum MM96
          |          |--P. insigne TB04
          |          |--P. rudgeanum TB04
          |          |--P. solimoesense TB04
          |          `--+--P. fragrantissimum TB04
          |             `--+--P. billietiae TB04
          |                `---P. melinonii TB04
          `--+--+--Caladieae TB04
             |  |    |--Caladium TB04
             |  |    |    |--‘Arum’ arborescens V01
             |  |    |    |--‘Arum’ auritum V01
             |  |    |    |--C. bicolor TB04 [=Arum bicolor V01]
             |  |    |    |--‘Arum’ helleborifolium V01
             |  |    |    |--C. nymphaeaefolium V01
             |  |    |    |--‘Arum’ sagittaefolium V01
             |  |    |    |--‘Arum’ seguinum V01
             |  |    |    `--C. solocasia AP80
             |  |    `--Xanthosoma TB04
             |  |         |--X. sagittifolium TB04
             |  |         `--X. undipes C09
             |  `--Thomsonieae TB04
             |       |--Pseudodracontium FPC04
             |       `--Amorphophallus TB04
             |            |--A. galbra LK14
             |            |--A. gigas B14
             |            |--A. paeoniifolius TB04
             |            |    |--A. p. var. paeoniifolius TB04
             |            |    `--A. p. var. campanulatus TB04
             |            `--A. titanum CG12
             `--+--Peltandra [Peltandreae] TB04
                |    `--P. virginica TB04
                `--+--+--Arisaema TB04
                   |  `--Pistia [Pistieae] TB04
                   |       `--P. stratiotes TB04
                   `--Colocasieae [Colocasioideae] TB04
                        |--Protarum FPC04
                        |--Steudnera FPC04
                        |--Colocasia HE80
                        |    |--C. esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott in Schott & Endlicher 1832 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
                        |    |    |--C. e. var. esculenta LK14
                        |    |    `--C. e. var. aquatilis LK14
                        |    `--C. macrorrhiza M87
                        `--Alocasia TB04
                             |--A. cuprea H03
                             |--A. denudata P88
                             |--A. macrorrhiza (Linnaeus) Don in Sweet 1839 HE80
                             `--A. odora TB04

Aroideae incertae sedis:
  Arum HE80
    |--A. dioscoridis PT98
    |--A. dracunculus D97
    |--A. italicum Miller 1768 HE80
    `--A. maculatum TG88
  Arisarum [Arisareae] FPC04
    `--A. vulgare PT98
  Ambrosina [Ambrosineae] FPC04
  Calla [Calloideae] NS06
    `--C. palustris NS06

Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott in Schott & Endlicher 1832 HE80 [=Arum esculentum V01, Caladium esculentum HE80; incl. C. esculenta var. antiquorum HE80, Arum colocasia C55]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AP80] Andrews, K. L., & S. L. Poe. 1980. Spider mites of El Salvador, Central America (Acari: Tetranychidae). Florida Entomologist 63 (4): 502–505.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C09] Chaverri, L. G. 2009. Culicidae (mosquitos, zancudos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 369–388. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CG12] Clouse, R., & G. Giribet. 2012. On the Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida, Opiliones) types from the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 160 (5): 241–257.

[D97] Duméril, A. M. C. 1797. Extrait d'une dissertation sur l'organe de l'odorat dans les insectes. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (5): 34.

[FPC04] Friis, E. M., K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane. 2004. Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (47): 16565–16570.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[NS06] Nie, Z.-L., H. Sun, H. Li & J. Wen. 2006. Intercontinental biogeography of subfamily Orontioideae (Symplocarpus, Lysichiton, and Orontium) of Araceae in eastern Asia and North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 155–165.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[TB04] Tam, S.-M., P. C. Boyce, T. M. Upson, D. Barabé, A. Bruneau, F. Forest & J. S. Parker. 2004. Intergeneric and infrafamilial phylogeny of subfamily Monsteroideae (Araceae) revealed by chloroplast trnL-F sequences. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 490–498.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[V01] Ventenat, C. 1801. Dissertation sur le genre Arum. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (46): 171–172.

Last updated: 22 March 2018.

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