Jack-in-the-pulpit Arisaema triphyllum, from here.

Belongs within: Araceae.

The Aroideae is a clade within the family Araceae with the spadix (flower-spike) divided into a male and female region. Members of the Aroideae except the Zamioculcadeae are united by the presence of lactifers and of pollen with a thin thin ectexine, thick and spongy endexine and massive intine (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, as 'Zamioculcadoideae + Aroideae'): Spathe differentiated into tube plus blade, spadix differentiated into zones with staminate and carpellate flowers; flowers imperfect; pollen inaperturate.

    |--Zamioculcadeae TB04
    |    |--Gonatopus TB04
    |    `--Zamioculcas zamiifolia TB04
    `--+--+--Nephthytideae TB04
       |  |    |--Anchomanes difformis TB04
       |  |    `--Nephthytis afzelii TB04
       |  `--Aglaonema [Aglaonemateae] TB04
       |       |--A. griffithii P88
       |       |--A. modestum TB04
       |       `--A. oblongifolium K03
       `--+--Anubias [Anubiadeae] TB04
          |    `--A. barteri TB04
          |         |--A. b. var. barteri TB04
          |         `--A. b. var. caladiifolia TB04
          |--+--Culcasieae TB04
          |  |    |--Culcasia saxatilis TB04
          |  |    `--+--Cercestis stigmaticus TB04
          |  |       `--Rhektophyllum mirabile TB04
          |  `--+--Dieffenbachia [Dieffenbachieae] TB04
          |     |    `--D. pittieri TB04
          |     `--Spathicarpa [Spathicarpeae] TB04
          |          `--S. sagittifolia TB04
          |--+--Montrichardia [Montrichardieae] TB04
          |  |    `--M. arborescens TB04
          |  `--+--Homalomena [Homalomeneae] TB04
          |     |    |--H. propinga K03
          |     |    `--H. rubescens TB04
          |     `--Philodendron [Philodendreae, Philodendroideae] TB04
          |          |  i. s.: P. callosum NS06
          |          |         P. consanguineum J87
          |          |         P. sinuatum MM96
          |          |--P. insigne TB04
          |          |--P. rudgeanum TB04
          |          |--P. solimoesense TB04
          |          `--+--P. fragrantissimum TB04
          |             `--+--P. billietiae TB04
          |                `---P. melinonii TB04
          `--+--+--Caladieae TB04
             |  |    |--Caladium bicolor TB04
             |  |    `--Xanthosoma sagittifolium TB04
             |  `--Thomsonieae TB04
             |       |--Thomsonia YY22
             |       |--Pseudodracontium FPC04
             |       `--Amorphophallus paeoniifolius TB04
             |            |--A. p. var. paeoniifolius TB04
             |            `--A. p. var. campanulatus TB04
             `--+--Peltandra [Peltandreae] TB04
                |    `--P. virginica TB04
                `--+--Colocasieae [Colocasioideae] TB04
                   |    |--Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott in Schott & Endlicher 1832 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    |--Protarum FPC04
                   |    |--Steudnera FPC04
                   |    `--Alocasia TB04
                   |         |--A. cuprea H03
                   |         |--A. denudata P88
                   |         |--A. macrorrhiza (Linnaeus) Don in Sweet 1839 HE80
                   |         `--A. odora TB04
                   `--+--Pistia [Pistieae] TB04
                      |    `--P. stratiotes TB04
                      `--Arisaema [Arisaemateae] TB04
                           |--A. consanguineum S76
                           |--A. costatum S76
                           |--A. flavum S76
                           |--A. jacquemontii S76
                           |--A. leschenaultii AD05
                           |--A. nepenthoides S76
                           |--A. sarracenioides Barnes & Fischer 1936 AD05
                           |--A. speciosum S76
                           |--A. tortuosum S76
                           |--A. triphyllum NS06
                           `--A. utile S76

Aroideae incertae sedis:
  Arum HE80
    |--A. dioscoridis PT98
    |--A. esculentum C55
    |--A. italicum Miller 1768 HE80
    `--A. maculatum TG88
  Arisarum [Arisareae] FPC04
    `--A. vulgare PT98
  Ambrosina [Ambrosineae] FPC04
  Calla [Calloideae] NS06
    `--C. palustris NS06

Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott in Schott & Endlicher 1832 HE80 [=Caladium esculentum HE80; incl. Arum colocasia C55, C. esculenta var. antiquorum HE80]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AD05] Arisdason, W. & P. Daniel. 2005. Rediscovery of Arisaema sarracenioides E. Barnes & C.E.C. Fisch. (Araceae) from the Anamalais, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 173-176.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[FPC04] Friis, E. M., K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane. 2004. Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: Evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (47): 16565-16570.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[NS06] Nie, Z.-L., H. Sun, H. Li & J. Wen. 2006. Intercontinental biogeography of subfamily Orontioideae (Symplocarpus, Lysichiton, and Orontium) of Araceae in eastern Asia and North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 155-165.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[S76] Strassen, R. zur. 1976. Hochmontane Arisaema-Arten (Araceae) in Nepal als Wirtspflanzen floricoler Fransenflügler (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 55-59.

[TB04] Tam, S.-M., P. C. Boyce, T. M. Upson, D. Barabé, A. Bruneau, F. Forest & J. S. Parker. 2004. Intergeneric and infrafamilial phylogeny of subfamily Monsteroideae (Araceae) revealed by chloroplast trnL-F sequences. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 490-498.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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