Simaroubaceae

Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima, photographed by Russ Kleinman.


Belongs within: Sapindales.

The Simaroubaceae are a family of mostly tropical or subtropical trees and shrubs. Well-known members include the tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima.

Characters (from Peng & Thomas): Trees or shrubs usually with bitter bark. Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite, pinnate to unifoliolate or rarely simple; stipules present or absent. Inflorescences axillary, racemose, paniculate, cymose, rarely spicate. Flowers generally small, bisexual or unisexual (occasionally andromonoecious, functionally dioecious, or distinctly dioecious), often with rudiments of opposite sex, actinomorphic. Calyx of 4 or 5(-8) sepals, imbricate or valvate. Petals usually 4 or 5(-8), free, imbricate or valvate. Stamens same number as petals and alternate with them, or twice as many as petals (or more); filaments free, base often with an appendage; anthers oblong, versatile, bicelled, with a longitudinal slit. Disk usually present, sometimes a gynophore or androgynophore. Gynoecium weakly united at base, or virtually free, usually 2-5-carpellate; ovary superior, with axile placentation; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, apical or basal; style connate or free; stigmas 2-5. Fruit a "drupe" or "samara," actually 1-5 fruitlike monocarps produced per flower, each a druparium or a samarium; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight or curved, with thick cotyledons.

Simaroubaceae
    |--Ailanthus MS06
    |    |--A. altissima MS06
    |    |--A. confucii MS06
    |    |--A. excelsa SK02
    |    `--A. glandulosa RS99
    `--+--Soulamea soulameoides MS06
       `--+--Quassia MS06
          |    |--Q. amara MS06
          |    `--Q. borneensis H03
          `--Simarouba MS06
               |--S. amara SWK87
               `--S. glauca MS06

Simaroubaceae incertae sedis:
  Picrasma H03
    |--P. quassioides [incl. P. ailanthoides] LO98
    `--P. selleana J87
  Leitneria [Leitneriaceae, Leitneriales] T00
  Brucea YY22
  Neocastela YY22
  Pongelion YY22
  Castela YY22
  Castelaria YY22
  Holacantha YY22
  Marupa YY22
  Picrolemma YY22
  Eurycoma longifolia YY22, K03
  Hannoa YY22
  Amaroria YY22
  Hebonga YY22
  Picrocardia YY22
  Perriera YY22

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family "out-of-Africa": divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236-250.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408-412.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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