Zonal geraniums Pelargonium × hortorum, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Malvidae.
Contains: Geranium.

The Geraniales are a group of plants with contorted corollas bearing nectaries outside the androecium, and capsular fruits. Members include the Geraniaceae, a family of mostly herbaceous plants. Species of Geraniaceae usually bear fruits with a prominent beak; members of the genus Erodium are known as heron's bills or storksbills in reference to this feature. Garden geraniums are mostly species of the genus Pelargonium.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Vessel elements with simple perforation plates; nodes also 3<:3<; lamina margins gland-toothed; inflorescence cymose; corolla contorted; nectary outside androecium, opposite calyx; anthers obdiplostemonous; gynoecium opposite petals, stigma dry; outer integument 2–3 cells across, inner integument 2–3 cells across; fruit capsular; seed testal.

<==Geraniales WM09
    |--Tremandraceae T00
    |    |--Platytheca galioides T00, GK00
    |    `--Tremandra diffusa T00
    |--Francoaceae [Bersamoideae, Ledocarpaceae, Melianthaceae, Melianthales, Melianthoideae, Vivianiaceae] APG16
    |    |--+--Francoa APG16
    |    |  `--Greyia [Greyiaceae] APG16
    |    |--+--Rhynchothecoideae [Rhynchothecaceae] T00
    |    |  |--Viviania [Vivianiaceae, Vivianioideae] APG16
    |    |  |    `--V. marifolia WM09
    |    |  `--Ledocarpoideae T00
    |    |       |--Balbisia T00
    |    |       `--Wendtia T00
    |    |            |--W. gracilis WM09
    |    |            `--W. reynoldsi D03
    |    `--+--Melianthus Tournefort 1694 APG16, D01 [incl. Diplerisma Planchon 1851 D01]
    |       |    |--M. comosus D01
    |       |    `--M. major D01
    |       `--Bersama Fresenius 1837 APG16, D01 [incl. Natalia Hochstetter 1841 D01; Bersamaceae]
    |            |--B. abyssinica D01
    |            |--B. lucens D01
    |            |--B. stayneri D01
    |            |--B. swynnertonii D01
    |            |--B. transvaalensis D01
    |            `--B. tysoniana D01
    `--Geraniaceae WM09
         |--Hypseocharis bilobata WM09
         |--Geranium A61
         |--Macraea Lindl. 1828 KC01
         |--Sarcocaulon CV06
         |    |--S. inerme CV06
         |    |--S. marlothii CV06
         |    `--S. peniculinum CV06
         |--Monsonia PP07
         |    |--M. deserticola CV06
         |    |--M. drudeana CV06
         |    |--M. ignorata CV06
         |    |--M. senegalensis PP07
         |    `--M. trilobata CV06
         |--Erodium M99
         |    |--E. aureum KM08
         |    |--E. botrys OS04
         |    |--E. brachycarpum [incl. E. obtusiplicatum] H93
         |    |--E. ciconium H91
         |    |--E. cicutarium KM08
         |    |--E. crinitum M99
         |    |--E. cygnorum KM08
         |    |--E. gruinum PT98
         |    |--E. laciniatum AGF98
         |    |--E. macrophyllum H93
         |    |--E. malacoides PT98
         |    |--E. moschatum GK00
         |    |--E. stephanianum O88
         |    `--E. texanum H93
         `--Pelargonium L’Hér. 1787 A61
              |--P. alchemilloides CM09
              |--P. australe H87
              |--P. capitatum SM06
              |--P. cortusifolium CV06
              |--P. × domesticum H93
              |--P. graveolens J87
              |--P. grossularioides H93
              |--P. × hortorum [P. inquinans × P. zonale] H93
              |--P. havlasae OS04
              |--P. inodorum Willd. 1809 A61 (see below for synonymy)
              |--P. inquinans H93
              |--P. littorale GK00
              |--P. mirabile CV06
              |--P. otaviense CV06
              |--P. panduriforme H93
              |--P. paniculatum CV06
              |--P. peltatum H93
              |--P. quercifolium C06
              |--P. rodneyanum M99
              |--P. vitifolium H93
              `--P. zonale MH98

Pelargonium inodorum Willd. 1809 A61 [=Geranium inodorum Poir. 1812 A61; incl. P. clandestinum L’Hér. ex DC. 1824 A61, P. australe var. clandestinum C06, P. erodioides Hook. 1834 A61, P. australe var. erodioides Benth. 1863 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[CM09] Callan, S. K., & J. D. Majer. 2009. Impacts of an incursion of African big-headed ants, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), in urban bushland in Perth, Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 15: 102–115.

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[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75–103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

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