Eutheria

Speculative reconstruction of Cimolestes, copyright Steve White.


Belongs within: Boreosphenida.
Contains: Adapisoriculidae, Zhelestidae, Asioryctitheria, Procerberinae, Leptictida, Xenarthra, Afrotheria, Boreoeutheria.

Eutheria is the total group of placental mammals: that is, all mammals more closely related to placentals than any other taxa. Eutherians are first definitively known from the early Cretaceous; the late Jurassic Juramaia sinensis, originally described as a eutherian, may have been a stem therian (marsupials+placentals). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that all known fossil Mesozoic eutherians lie outside the placental crown group (Wible et al. 2007). Early eutherians include Acristatherium yanensis, described from a partial skull from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) of China.

<==Eutheria [Bunotheria, Cimolesta, Cimolestidae, Leptictimorpha, Mesodonta, Tupaioidea]
    |  i. s.: Otlestes meiman AAE01
    |         Opisthotomus Cope 1875 C77
    |           |--O. astutus Cope 1875 C77
    |           `--O. flagrans Cope 1875 C77
    |--Acristatherium yanensis GP11
    `--+--Murtoilestes Averianov & Skutchas 2001 GP11, FN03
       |    `--M. abramovi WR07
       `--+--Montanalestes Cifelli 1999 WR07, FN03
          |    `--M. keebleri WR07
          `--+--Adapisoriculidae GP11
             `--+--Sheikhdzheilia rezvyii HUG17, WR07
                `--+--Zhelestidae HUG17
                   `--+--+--Eozhelestes mangit WR07
                      |  `--Paranyctoides HUG17
                      |       |--P. aralensis WR07
                      |       |--P. maleficus WR07
                      |       |--P. megakeros WR07
                      |       |--P. quadrans HUG17
                      |       `--P. sternbergi WR07
                      `--+--+--Batodon Marsh 1892 HUG17, V67
                         |  |    `--B. tenuis WR07
                         |  `--Maelestes Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
                         |       `--*M. gobiensis Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
                         |--Bobolestes zenge HUG17, WR07
                         |--Asioryctitheria HUG17
                         `--+--Cimolestes Marsh 1889 HUG17, FN03 [incl. Nyssodon Simpson 1927 V67]
                            |    |--*C. incisus Marsh 1889 V66
                            |    |--C. cerberoides Lillegraven 1969 FN03
                            |    |--C. cuspulus Gheerbrant 1992 GI06
                            |    |--C. lucasi D07
                            |    |--C. magnus Clemens & Russell 1965 FN03
                            |    |--C. propalaeoryctes WR07
                            |    |--*Nyssodon’ punctidens Simpson 1927 V66
                            |    `--C. stirtoni WR07
                            `--+--Eoryctes Thewissen & Gingerich 1989 HUG17, AM02
                               |    `--E. melanus WR07
                               |--Puercolestes Reynolds 1936 HUG17, V67
                               |    `--*P. simpsoni Reynolds 1936 V66 [=Cimolestes simpsoni WR07]
                               |--Betonnia tsosia HUG17
                               `--+--+--Chacopterygus minutus HUG17
                                  |  `--Procerberinae HUG17
                                  `--+--+--Purgatorius HUG17
                                     |  |    |--P. coracis OB13
                                     |  |    |--P. janisae WR07
                                     |  |    `--P. unio WR07
                                     |  `--+--Oxyprimus WR07
                                     |     |    |--O. erikseni WR07
                                     |     |    `--O. galadrielae Van Valen 1978 MC00
                                     |     `--Protungulatum Sloan & Van Valen 1965 HUG17, D07
                                     |          |--P. coombsi OB13
                                     |          |--P. donnae Sloan & Van Valen 1965 MC00
                                     |          |--P. gorgon WR07
                                     |          |--P. mckeeveri WR07
                                     |          `--P. sloani D07
                                     `--+--Leptictida HUG17
                                        `--+--Prodiacodon Matthew 1929 HUG17, SFY02 (see below for synonymy)
                                           |    |--*P. puercensis (Matthew 1918) V67
                                           |    |--P. concordiarcensis Simpson 1935 S35
                                           |    |--P. crustulum OB13
                                           |    `--P. tauricinerei HUG17
                                           `--Placentalia (see below for synonymy) WR07
                                                |  i. s.: Ernanodonta S03
                                                |           |--Ernanodon Ding 1987 [Ernanodontidae] S03
                                                |           |    `--*E. antelios Ding 1979 S03
                                                |           `--Asiabradypus Nessov 1987 S03
                                                |                `--A. incompositus Nesson 1987 S03
                                                |         Plioceros dehlini MHL03
                                                |         Colodon occidentalis MHL03
                                                |         Tingamarra Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
                                                |           `--*T. porterorum Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
                                                |         Kharmerungulatum Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
                                                |           `--*K. vanvaleni Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
                                                |         Parapodemus Scaub 1938 P04
                                                |         Germanomys Heller 1936 P04
                                                |         Blackia Mein 1970 P04
                                                |         Sulimskia Reumer 1984 P04
                                                |         Stachomys Kowalski 1960 P04
                                                |         Smithozapus Sulimski 1962 P04
                                                |         Pliopetes Kretzoi 1959 P04
                                                |         Kowalskia Fahlbusch 1969 P04
                                                |         Prospalax Méhely 1908 P04
                                                |         Paenelimnoecus Baudelot 1972 P04
                                                |         Alloblarinella Storch 1995 P04
                                                |         Orientalomys De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
                                                |         Archaeodesmana Topachevskij & Pashkov 1983 P04
                                                |         Blancomys Van de Weerd, Adrover et al. 1977 P04
                                                |         Stephanomys Schaub 1938 P04
                                                |         Castyllomys Michaux 1969 P04
                                                |         Occitanomys Michaux 1969 P04
                                                |         Pseudomeriones Schaub 1934 P04
                                                |         Spermophilinus De Bruijn & Mein 1968 P04
                                                |           `--S. bredai M-SK04
                                                |         Keramidomys Hartenberger 1966 P04
                                                |         Tylodon Gervais 1848 V66
                                                |--Atlantogenata HUG17
                                                |    |--Xenarthra HUG17
                                                |    `--Afrotheria HUG17
                                                `--Boreoeutheria HUG17

Placentalia [Altungulata, Anagalida, Bruta, Cheiroptères, Dilambdodonta, Edentata, Educabilia, Eparctocyona, Epitheria, Exafroplacentalia, Gyrencephala, Menotyphla, Pantomesaxonia, Pedimanes, Unguiculata, Ungulata, Ungulatomorpha, Volitantia]

Prodiacodon Matthew 1929 HUG17, SFY02 [incl. Palaeolestes Matthew 1918 (preoc.) V67]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AAE01] Archibald, J. D., A. O. Averianov & E. G. Ekdale. 2001. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. Nature 414: 62–65.

[AM02] Asher, R. J., M. C. McKenna, R. J. Emry, A. R. Tabrum & D. G. Kron. 2002. Morphology and relationships of Apternodus and other extinct, zalambdodont, placental mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 273: 1–117.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FN03] Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 393–420.

[GI06] Gheerbrant, E., M. Iarochene, M. Amaghzaz & B. Bouya. 2006. Early African hyaenodontid mammals and their bearing on the origin of the Creodonta. Geological Magazine 143 (4): 475–489.

[GP11] Goswami, A., G. V. R. Prasad, P. Upchurch, D. M. Boyer, E. R. Seiffert, O. Verma, E. Gheerbrant & J. J. Flynn. 2011. A radiation of arboreal basal eutherian mammals beginning in the Late Cretaceous of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (39): 16333–16338.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Luo, Z.-X., C.-X. Yuan, Q.-J. Meng & Q. Ji. 2011. A Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals. Nature 476: 442-445.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[M-SK04] Moyà-Solà, S., M. Köhler, D. M. Alba, I. Casanovas-Vilar & J. Galindo. 2004. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science 306: 1339–1344.

[MC00] Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): Implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. Geodiversitas 22 (1): 47–150.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[PV07] Prasad, G. V. R., O. Verma, A. Sahni, V. Parmar & A. Khosla. 2007. A Cretaceous hoofed mammal from India. Science 318: 937.

[SFY02] Scott, C. S., R. C. Fox & G. P. Youzwyshyn. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 691–704.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221–244.

[S03] Storch, G. 2003. Fossil Old World “edentates” (Mammalia). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83: 51–60.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1–126.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006

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