Elateridae

Rivulicola variegatus, copyright CSIRO.


Belongs within: Elateroidea.
Contains: Synaptini, Ludius, Agrypninae, Denticollinae, Elaterinae, Thylacosterninae, Lissominae, Cardiophorinae.

The Elateridae are the click beetles, so called for their ability to jump by rapidly bending the thorax (producing a clicking noise). Larvae of elaterids are liquid feeders on various foods by extraoral digestion; some phytophagous species, known as wireworms, are pests of crops.

Members of the Elateridae have been divided between several subfamilies. These include the Negastriinae, characterised by the presence of two sublateral longitudinal carinae on the base of the pronotum, a short truncate prosternal spine, and a cordate scutellum that is deeply notched on the anterior margin (Calder 1996).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Characteristic elongate form, with acute hind angles on prothorax and clicking mechanism enabling them to jump by forcing long prosternal process suddenly into cavity on mesosternum causing sudden movement of prothorax relative to hind body. Labrum always visible; frontal area usually with sharp transverse ridge between eyes; antennae almost always serrate; tarsi simple or provided with setal brushes or membranous appendages; fifth ventrite more or less free, membrane usually visible between it and ventrite 4. Larvae elongate and cylindrical to slightly flattened, either uniformly sclerotised and yellow to brown in colour, or more lightly sclerotised, except for head capsule, protergum and T9. Labrum and clypeus solidly fused to remainder of head capsule forming nasale, which is variously lobed or toothed; stemmata often reduced or absent; ventral mouthparts consolidated to form maxillolabial complex; tenth segment reduced and ventrally situated; T9 terminal.

Elateridae [Serricornes]
    |--+--Panspaeus guttatus KB11
    |  `--+--+--Agrypninae KB11
    |     |  `--Denticollinae KB11
    |     `--+--Elaterinae KB11
    |        `--+--Thylacosterninae KB11
    |           `--Lissominae KB11
    `--+--Cardiophorinae KB11
       `--Negastriinae KB11
            |--Yukoana Kishii 1959 PS07
            |--Zorochros KB11
            |--Quasimus Gozis 1886 PS07
            |    |--Q. (Quasimus) vunum Kishii 1994 PS07
            |    `--Q. (Miquasus Kishii 1959) PS07
            `--Rivulicola Calder 1996 C96
                 |--*R. variegatus (Macleay 1872) [=Cryptohypnus variegatus] C96
                 `--R. dimidiatus (Macleay 1888) (see below for synonymy) C96

Elateridae incertae sedis:
  Acritelater barbatus (Candèze 1865) [=Chrosis barbata, Elatichrosis barbata] C96
  Thoramus WH02
  Codemus teres P02
  Amychus WH02
    |--A. candezei Pascoe 1876 E02
    `--A. granulatus WH02
  Pectocera [Pectocerini] PS07
    |--P. babai Kishii 1990 PS07
    |--P. formosana Kishii 1990 PS07
    `--P. yaeyamana Suzuki 1976 PS07
  Synaptini PS07
  Camptosternus fulgens B66
  Agonischius obscuripes M86, B66
  Eopenthes O94
  Poecilonata masudai Kano 1929 TYM08
  Archontas murinus C01
  Betarmon picipennis C01
  Ludius C01
  Dolopius C01
    |--D. marginatus C01
    `--D. marginipennis Lucas 1847 E12
  Selenodon MW15
  Campyloxenus [Campyloxeninae] B14
    `--C. pyrothorax Fairmaire & Germain 1860 B14
  Hemiopinae B14
    |--Parhemiops B14
    |--Plectrosternum B14
    `--Hemiops PS07
         |--H. flava Castelnau 1838 PS07
         |--H. ireii B14
         `--H. substriata B14
  Eudicronychinae KB11
  Morostominae KB11
  Subprotelater [Subprotelaterinae] C96
  Cryptohypnus flavicans Candèze 1889 C96
  Psephus quadraticollis Schwarz 1906 C96

Rivulicola dimidiatus (Macleay 1888) [=Cryptohypnus dimidiatus, Hypnoidus dimidiatus, Hypolithus dimidiatus; incl. Cryptohypnus semifasciatus Macleay 1888] C96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C96] Calder, A. A. 1996. Click beetles: genera of the Australian Elateridae (Coleoptera). CSIRO Australia: Collingwood.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[KB11] Kundrata, R., & L. Bocak. 2011. The phylogeny and limits of Elateridae (Insecta, Coleoptera): is there a common tendency of click beetles to soft-bodiedness and neoteny? Zoologica Scripta 40: 364–378.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourned University Press.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[PS07] Platia, G., & R. Schimmel. 2007. Click beetles of Taiwan collected by the expeditions of the Hungarian Natural History Museum in the years 1995 to 2003 (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 49–91.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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