Micraspis flavovittata, copyright AusDigi.

Belongs within: Coccinelloidea.
Contains: Serangiini, Sukunahikonini, Diomini, Sticholotidini, Telsimiini, Chilocorini, Epilachna, Coccidulini, Noviini, Coccinella, Harmonia.

The Coccinellidae include the ladybirds, mostly predatory beetles that feed on aphids and other plant-sucking insects (though some, such as Epilachna, are phytophagous). Though best known from brightly coloured species, many (if not most) coccinellids are not so colorful. The subfamily Microweisinae includes minute coccinellids with antennal insertions close together between the eyes, and the antennae short and clubbed with at most ten segments. The remaining coccinellids were classified by Ślipiński (2007) in a single subfamily Coccinellinae which is less clearly supported morphologically. Many of the most familiar ladybirds belong to the tribe Coccinellini, which includes relatively large coccinellids with a glabrous dorsum that usually bears contrasting markings (Ślipiński 2007).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Broadly ovate, moderately to strongly convex, with pseudotrimerous tarsi (segment 3 reduced, segment 2 strongly lobed beneath it). Antennae short, weakly clubbed; apical maxillary palp segment almost always large and securiform; femoral lines on first ventrite and sometimes metasternum. Many larger species glabrous and brightly patterned with red or yellow and black or blue; most smally species more uniformly coloured and finely pubescent. Larvae elongate, oblong or occasionally broadly ovate and slightly to strongly flattened, usually with transverse row of six tubercles or prominences on most abdominal segments, often covered with waxy exudate; some forms spinose above, may be aposematically coloured like many adults. Antennae very short; mandibles often with sub-basal lobe which probably represents a reduced mola; mala obtuse and usually with stylus (specialised setiferous process); paired glandular openings on thorax and abdomen; tibia usually with two to several expanded setae extending beneath tarsungulus. Pupa obtect, partly enclosed within larval skin, which is attached to substrate by anal end.

Coccinellidae [Sticholotidinae]
    |--Microweiseinae [Scotoscymninae] S07
    |    |--Serangiini S07
    |    |--Sukunahikonini S07
    |    |--Carinodulina B14 [Carinodulini S07]
    |    |    |--C. burakowskii Ślipiński & Jadwiszczak 1995 B14
    |    |    `--C. ruwenzorii B14
    |    `--Microweiseini S07
    |         |--Microweisea Cockerell 1903 S07
    |         |--Coccidophilus S07
    |         |--Diloponis Pope 1962 S07
    |         `--Hong Ślipiński 2007 S07
    |              `--*H. glorious Ślipiński 2007 S07
    `--Coccinellinae [Chilocorinae, Coccidulinae] S07
         |  i. s.: Promecopharus S07
         |         Ghanius S07
         |         Boschalis S07
         |--Diomini S07
         |--Aspidimerini S07
         |--Sticholotidini S07
         |--Telsimiini S07
         |--Shirozuelini S07
         |--Cryptognathini S07
         |--Hyperaspis [Hyperaspidini] S07
         |    |--H. cinciguerrae S07
         |    `--H. pantherina S07
         |--Azyini S07
         |    |--Azya S07
         |    `--Pseudoazya S07
         |--Scymnillini [Zilini] S07
         |    |--Scymnillus Casey 1899 S07
         |    |--Zilus Mulsant 1850 S07
         |    |--Cyrema Blackburn 1889 S07
         |    |    `--*C. nigellum Blackburn 1889 S07
         |    `--Bucolellus Blackburn 1889 [incl. Cycloscymnus Blackburn 1892] S07
         |         |--*B. ornatus Blackburn 1889 S07
         |         |--B. concolor (Blackburn 1895) [=Cycloscymnus concolor] S07
         |         |--B. minutus (Blackburn 1892) [=*Cycloscymnus minutus] S07
         |         `--B. punctipennis (Lea 1902) [=Serangium punctipenne, Cycloscymnus punctipennis] S07
         |--+--Chilocorini MW15
         |  `--+--Epilachna MW15
         |     |--Coccidulini MW15
         |     |--Noviini MW15
         |     `--Platynaspis MW15 [Platynaspidini S07]
         `--Coccinellini [Cydoniinae, Discotomini, Halyziini, Psylloborini, Singhikalini, Tytthaspidini] S07
              |--Coccinella S07
              |--Bullaea lichatschovi S07
              |--Vibidia S07
              |--Seladia S07
              |--Harmonia MW15
              |--Tytthaspis sedecimpunctata S07
              |--Elpis S07
              |--Cheilomenes lunata S07
              |--Antineda Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1982 S07
              |    `--*A. princeps (Mulsant 1850) [=Neda princeps, Archaioneda princeps, Callineda princeps] S07
              |--Australoneda Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1984 S07
              |    `--*A. bourgeoisi (Kerville 1884) [=Neda bourgeoisi] S07
              |--Cleobora Mulsant 1850 [=Cleodora Mulsant 1850 non Péron & Lesueur 1810] S07
              |    `--*C. mellyi (Mulsant 1850) [=*Cleodora mellyi, Halyzia mellyi] S07
              |--Menochilus Timberlake 1943 S07
              |    `--*M. sexmaculatus (Fabricius 1781) (see below for synonymy) S07
              |--Illeis Mulsant 1850 [=Leptothea Weise 1898] S07
              |    |--*I. galbula (Mulsant 1850) [=Psyllobora galbula, I. (*Leptothea) galbula] S07
              |    `--I. flava Pope 1989 [=I. (Leptothea) flava] S07
              |--Synona Pope 1989 [=Synia Mulsant 1850 (preoc.)] S07
              |    |--*S. melanaria (Mulsant 1850) [=*Synia melanaria] S07
              |    `--S. seminigra (Weise 1902) [=Coelophora seminigra, Lemnia (Synia) seminigra] S07
              |--Oenopia Mulsant 1850 [incl. Gyrocaria Timberlake 1943] S07
              |    |--*O. cinctella Mulsant 1850 S07
              |    `--O. guttata (Blackburn 1892) [=Coelophora guttata, *Gyrocaria guttata] s07
              |--Phrynocaria Timberlake 1943 [=Phrynolemnia Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1982] S07
              |    |--*P. congener (Bilberg 1808) [=Coccinella congener, *Phrynolemnia congener] S07
              |    |--P. astrolabiana (Weise 1902) [=Coelophora astrolabiana] S07
              |    `--P. gratiosa (Mulsant 1853) (see below for synonymy) S07
              |--Adalia Mulsant 1846 [=Idalia Mulsant 1846 non Leuckart 1828] S07
              |    |--*A. bipunctata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Coccinella bipunctata, *Idalia bipunctata] S07
              |    |--A. decimpunctata G01
              |    |--A. tetraspilota G01
              |    `--A. variegata G01
              |--Coelophora Mulsant 1850 [incl. Lemnia Mulsant 1850, Microcaria Crotch 1871] S07
              |    |--*C. inaequalis (Fabricius 1775) S07 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--*Lemnia’ fraudulenta Mulsant 1850 S07
              |    |--C. jansoni Crotch 1874 [=Lemnia jansoni, Microcaria jansoni] S07
              |    `--C. mulsanti (Montrouzier 1861) (see below for synonymy) S07
              |--Hippodamia Chevrolat in Dejean 1836 [incl. Adonia Mulsant 1846] S07
              |    |--*H. tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Coccinella tredecimpunctata] S07
              |    |--H. amoena [incl. H. amoena var. scalaris] C01
              |    |--H. convergens Guérin-Méneville 1842 B14
              |    `--H. variegata (Goeze 1777) B14, S07 (see below for synonymy)
              |--Archegleis Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1984 S07
              |    |--*A. kingi (Macleay 1826) [=Coccinella kingi] S07
              |    |--A. barronensis (Blackburn 1895) [=Cycloneda barronensis, Lemnia barronensis] S07
              |    |--A. delta (Weise 1898) [=Egleis delta; incl. A. crotchi Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1984] S07
              |    |--A. duplicata (Crotch 1874) [=Callineda duplicata] S07
              |    |--A. edwardsi (Mulsant 1850) [=Egleis edwardsi; incl. E. pascoei Crotch 1874] S07
              |    `--A. interrupta (Weise 1927) [=Egleis interrupta] S07
              `--Micraspis Chevrolat in Dejean 1836 (see below for synonymy) S07
                   |--*M. striata (Fabricius 1792) [=Coccinella striata, *Alesia striata] S07
                   |--M. aphidectoides (Korschefsky 1934) [=Verania aphidectoides] S07
                   |--‘Coccinella’ comma Thunberg 1781 [=*Verania comma] S07
                   |--M. confusa Pope 1989 S07
                   |--M. flavovittata (Crotch 1874) [=Verania flavovittata, Alesia flavovittata] S07
                   |--M. frenata (Erichson 1842) [=Coccinella frenata, Alesia frenata, Verania frenata] S07
                   |--M. furcifera (Guérin-Méneville 1835) (see below for synonymy) S07
                   |--M. lineola (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) S07
                   `--M. phalerata Lucas 1846 E12

Coccinellidae incertae sedis:
  Pseudoscymnus SS96
  Lasia vigintiquatuorpunctata C01
  Anatis ocellata C01
  Anisostica novemdecimpunctata C01
  Lioadalia flavomaculata S07
  Anisolemnia tetrasticta S07
  Thalassa saginata S07
  Monocoryna S07
  Erratodiomus S07
  Heterodiomus S07

*Coelophora inaequalis (Fabricius 1775) S07 [=Coccinella inaequalis S07; incl. Coe. mastersi Blackburn 1892 S07, Coc. novempunctata Fabricius 1775 S07, Coc. undecimnotata var. novempunctata C01, Coc. religiosa Lea 1902 S07, Coelophora ripponi Crotch 1874 S07, Coe. veranioides Blackburn 1894 S07]

Coelophora mulsanti (Montrouzier 1861) [=Coccinella (Daulis) mulsanti, Lemnia mulsanti, *Microcaria mulsanti; incl. Coelophora ochracea Mulsant 1866, Coe. mulsanti var. ochracea] S07

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) B14, S07 [=Coccinella variegata S07, H. (Adonia) variegata; incl. H. variegata var. carpini C01, C. mutabilis Scriba 1791 S07, *Adonia mutabilis S07, Hippodamia variegata var. neglecta C01]

*Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius 1781) [=Coccinella sexmaculata, Cheilomenes sexmaculata; incl. Ch. sexmaculata var. australis Weise 1908, Orcus mollipes Oliff 1895, Coccinella quadriplagiata Schönherr 1808, Cheilomenes quadriplagiata, Menochilus quadriplagiatus] S07

Micraspis Chevrolat in Dejean 1836 [=Alesia Mulsant 1850; incl. Cisseis Mulsant 1850 non Laporte & Gory 1839, Cissella Weise 1895, Verania Mulsant 1850] S07

Micraspis furcifera (Guérin-Méneville 1835) [=Coccinella furcifera, *Cisseis furcifera, *Cissella furcifera, Verania furcifera; incl. Sospita flavolineata Mulsant 1866, V. gauthardi Mulsant 1866] S07

Micraspis lineola (Fabricius 1775) [=Coccinella lineola, Verania lineola; incl. C. stragula Boisduval 1832, Alesia lineola var. strigula] S07

Phrynocaria gratiosa (Mulsant 1853) [=Coelophora gratiosa, Lemnia (Phrynocaria) gratiosa; incl. C. elegans Crotch 1874, Phrynocaria gratiosa var. flavoguttata Timberlake 1943, P. gratiosa var. koebelei Timberlake 1943, P. gratiosa var. nigrocincta Timberlake 1943, Coelophora nigrovittata Blackburn 1895, P. gratiosa var. nigrovittata, P. gratiosa var. palens Timberlake 1943] S07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 27 January 2019.

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