Coccinellidae

Mating pair of Stethorus punctillum, photographed by Edgardo González Carducci.


Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Coccinellidae include the ladybirds, mostly predatory beetles that feed on aphids and other plant-sucking insects (though some, such as Epilachna, are phytophagous). Though best known from brightly coloured species, many (if not most) coccinellids are not so colorful. Members of the genus Stethorus, for instance, are brown or black predators of plant-feeding spider mites of the family Tetranychidae.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Broadly ovate, moderately to strongly convex, with pseudotrimerous tarsi (segment 3 reduced, segment 2 strongly lobed beneath it). Antennae short, weakly clubbed; apical maxillary palp segment almost always large and securiform; femoral lines on first ventrite and sometimes metasternum. Many larger species glabrous and brightly patterned with red or yellow and black or blue; most smally species more uniformly coloured and finely pubescent. Larvae elongate, oblong or occasionally broadly ovate and slightly to strongly flattened, usually with transverse row of six tubercles or prominences on most abdominal segments, often covered with waxy exudate; some forms spinose above, may be aposematically coloured like many adults. Antennae very short; mandibles often with sub-basal lobe which probably represents a reduced mola; mala obtuse and usually with stylus (specialised setiferous process); paired glandular openings on thorax and abdomen; tibia usually with two to several expanded setae extending beneath tarsungulus. Pupa obtect, partly enclosed within larval skin, which is attached to substrate by anal end.

<==Coccinellidae
    |--Brumus suturalis G01
    |--Jauravia G01
    |--Coelophora inaequalis WFS04
    |--Cryptolaemus montrouzieri B88
    |--Diomus notescens WFS04
    |--Halmus chalybeus WFS04
    |--Pseudoscymnus SS96
    |--Chilocorus distigma [=Coccinella distigma] G89
    |--Hyperaspis B88
    |--Pullus B88
    |--Henosepilachna signatipennis B88
    |--Coccidula rondensis Eizaguirre 2004 F05
    |--Illeis galbula ZS10
    |--Menochilius YHT05
    |    |--M. quadriplagiatus YHT05
    |    `--M. sexmaculatus G01
    |--Rodolia F04
    |    |--R. cardinalis [=Vedalia cardinalis] A71
    |    `--R. limbata F04
    |--Rhyzobius WFS04
    |    |--R. fagus WFS04
    |    `--R. forstieri WFS04
    |--Scymnus WFS04
    |    |--S. gracilis G01
    |    `--S. loewi WFS04
    |--Adalia WFS04
    |    |--A. bipunctata WFS04
    |    |--A. decimpunctata G01
    |    |--A. tetraspilota G01
    |    `--A. variegata G01
    |--Coccinella B88
    |    |--C. leonina [incl. C. tasmanii] M83
    |    |--C. repanda G24
    |    |--C. septempunctata G01
    |    |--C. transversalis G24
    |    |--C. transversoguttata D37
    |    `--C. undecimpunctata WFS04
    |--Epilachna [Epilachninae] TS01
    |    |--E. cucurbitae ZS10
    |    |--E. pustulosa TS01
    |    |--E. varivestis WR-SG01
    |    `--E. vigintioctopunctata TS01
    |         |--E. v. vigintioctopunctata B88
    |         `--E. v. pardalis B88
    `--Stethorus P01
         |--S. aethiops P01
         |--S. bifidus BC01
         |--S. gilvifrons G01
         |--S. keralicus G01
         |--S. parcempunctatus G01
         |--S. pauperculus G01
         |--S. punctillum G01
         |--S. punctum G01
         `--S. tetranychi G01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BC01] Briese, D. T., & J. M. Cullen. 2001. The use and usefulness of mites in biological control of weeds. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 453-463. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329-333.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[G24] Girault, A. A. 1924. Homo perniciosus and new Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 178-181).

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 543-683. Melbourned University Press.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[P01] Pringle, K. L. 2001. Biological control of tetranychid mites in South African apple orchards. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 429-435. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965-1974.

[TS01] Tsurusaki, N., Y. Shirai, S. Nakano, N. Fujiyama, S. Kahono & H. Katakura. 2001. B-chromosomes in the Indonesian populations of a phytophagous ladybird beetle "Epilachna vigintioctopunctata". Special Publication of the Japan Coleopterological Society 1: 65-71.

[WR-SG01] Wang, S. F., T. J. Ridsdill-Smith & E. L. Ghisalberti. 2001. Resistance in pasture legumes to redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acari: Penthaleidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 328-341. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72.

[YHT05] Yates, C. J., S. D. Hopper & R. H. Taplin. 2005. Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 147-153.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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