Rutelinae

Anomala testaceipennis, from here.


Belongs within: Scarabaeoidea.
Contains: Chrysina, Anoplognathina.

The Rutelinae are a group of stout, usually brightly coloured and metallic scarab beetles. Larvae are found in soil and (where known) feed on organic matter. Adults of several genera feed on foliage and may cause severe defoliation of trees, but others are nocturnal and may not feed (Cassis & Weir 1992).

Characters (from Cassis & Weir 1992): Adults with head and pronotum lacking prominences; elytra often with membranous margin beneath, pygidium exposed; tarsal claws unequal, large and movable; abdominal spiracles strongly diverging, several lying on abdominal sternites and at least one pair exposed. Larva with head not strongly punctate; apical antennal segment about as wide as penultimate; labrum asymmetrical with deeply pigmented notch on right side of midline; mandible with ventral oval stridulatory area; stridulatory teeth on dorsal edge of maxilla with anteriorly directed points; galea and lacinia fused to form mala; legs large, hind coxa larger than width of clypeus; anal cleft transverse; sternum 9 without raster of longitudinal rows of spines.

<==Rutelinae [Rutelides]
    |--Adoretus Castelnau 1840 [Adoretini] CW92
    |    |--*A. hirtellus Castelnau 1840 HW92
    |    |--A. aegrotus G89
    |    `--A. melvillensis Lea 1919 CW92
    |--Rutelini B14
    |    |--Chrysophora chrysochlora (Latreille 1811) B14
    |    |--Chrysina B14
    |    |--Pelidnota MacLeay 1819 B14, F55
    |    |    |  i. s.: P. punctata T90
    |    |    `--P. (Pelidnota) F55
    |    |         |--P. (P.) punctulata Bates 1888 F55
    |    |         `--P. (P.) strigosa Laporte 1840 F55
    |    |--Parastasia Westwood 1841 CW92
    |    |    |--*P. canaliculata Westwood 1841 CW92
    |    |    `--P. montrouzieri Fairmaire 1883 CW92
    |    |         |--P. m. montrouzieri CW92
    |    |         `--P. m. australis Ohaus 1901 CW92
    |    `--Rutela L02
    |         |--R. lineola [=Cetonia lineola] L02
    |         |--R. olivacea [=Cetonia olivacea] L02
    |         |--R. punctata [=Melolontha punctata] L02
    |         `--R. surinamensis [=Cetonia surinamensis] L02
    |--Anomala Samouelle 1819 [incl. Aprosterna Hope 1835; Anomalini] CW92
    |    |  i. s.: A. aeneotincta Fairmaire 1883 CW92
    |    |         A. aeruginosa B35
    |    |         A. antiqua (Gyllenhal in Schönherr 1817) (see below for synonymy) CW92
    |    |         A. assimilis B35
    |    |         A. corpulenta F92
    |    |         A. corrugata B66
    |    |         A. inconcinna B66
    |    |         ‘Mimela’ nigricans Kirby 1825 [=M. (*Aprosterna) nigricans] CW92
    |    |         A. orientalis T90
    |    |--A. (Anomala) F55
    |    |    |--‘Scarabaeus’ dubia Scopoli 1763 [incl. Melolontha fritschii Fabricius 1775, *Anomala fritschii] CW92
    |    |    |--A. (A.) amphicoma Bates 1888 F55
    |    |    |--A. (A.) cupricollis Chevrolet 1834 F55
    |    |    |--A. (A.) donovani Stephens 1830 F55
    |    |    |--A. (A.) foraminosa Bates 1888 F55
    |    |    |--A. (A.) inconstans Burmeister 1844 F55
    |    |    |--A. (A.) testaceipennis Blanchard 1856 F55
    |    |    `--A. (A.) vicenti Franz 1955 F55
    |    `--A. (Spilota Burmeister 1844) F55
    |         `--A. (S.) nitidula Blanchard 1850 F55
    `--Anoplognathini CW92
         |  i. s.: Amblochilus Blanchard 1851 CW92
         |           `--*A. bicolor Blanchard 1851 CW92
         |         Amblyterus Macleay 1819 CW92
         |           |--A. cicatricosus (Gyllenhal in Schönherr 1817) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |           |--A. clypealis Ohaus 1904 CW92
         |           |--A. deuqueti Carne 1958 CW92
         |           |--A. paradoxus Carne 1975 CW92
         |           |--A. simplicitarsus Carne 1958 CW92
         |           |--A. tarsalis Lea 1920 CW92
         |           `--A. tibialis Carne 1958 CW92
         |         Anoplostethus Brullé 1837 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |           |--*A. opalinus Brullé 1837 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |           |--A. laetus Rothschild & Jordan 1894 [incl. A. laetus nobilis Benderitter 1924] CW92
         |           `--A. roseus Blanchard 1851 [=A. opalinus Blanchard 1846 non Brullé 1837] CW92
         |         Bilobatus Machatschke 1970 [=Homotropus Waterhouse 1878 non Foerster 1869] CW92
         |           |--*B. luridipennis (Waterhouse 1878) [=*Homotropus luridipennis] CW92
         |           `--B. testaceipennis (Ohaus 1901) [=Homotropus testaceipennis] CW92
         |         Calloodes White 1845 CW92
         |           |--*C. grayianus (White 1845) [=Anoplognathus (*Calloodes) grayianus] CW92
         |           |--C. aeneus Waterh. 1868 M86
         |           |--C. atkinsoni Waterhouse 1868 B14
         |           |--C. nitidissimus Lea 1919 [incl. C. frenchi Ohaus 1912 non Blackburn 1890] CW92
         |           `--C. rayneri Macleay 1864 CW92
         |         Clilopocha Lea 1914 [incl. Dynastomorphus Carne 1954] CW92
         |           |--*C. whiteae Lea 1914 CW92
         |           |--C. angularis (Carne 1954) [=Dynastomorphus angularis] CW92
         |           |--C. mandibularis (Carne 1954) [=Dynastomorphus mandibularis] CW92
         |           |--C. pachypus (Lea 1917) [=Aneurystypus pachypus, *Dynastomorphus pachypus] CW92
         |           `--C. pilosicollis (Lea 1917) [=Aneurystypus pilosicollis] CW92
         |         Dungoorus Carne 1958 CW92
         |           `--*D. murrumbullus Carne 1958 CW92
         |         Eosaulostomus Carne 1956 CW92
         |           |--*E. excisus Carne 1956 CW92
         |           |--E. collaris (Blackburn 1892) CW92 [=Aneurystypus collaris CW92, Saulostomus collaris L19]
         |           |--E. halei Carne 1956 CW92
         |           |--E. mimicus (Lea 1919) [=Saulostomus mimicus] CW92
         |           |--E. norsemanae Carne 1956 CW92
         |           `--E. weiskei (Ohaus 1904) [=Saulostomus weiskei] CW92
         |         Epichrysus White 1841 CW92
         |           `--*E. lamprimoides (White 1841) [=Brachysternus (*Epichrysus) lamprimoides] CW92
         |         Exochogenys Carne 1958 CW92
         |           `--*E. nigripennis (Blanchard 1851) [=Schizognathus nigripennis] CW92
         |         Mesystoechus Waterhouse 1878 CW92
         |           |--*M. ciliatus Waterhouse 1878 CW92
         |           `--M. costatus Carne 1958 CW92
         |         Mimadoretus Arrow 1901 [=Popillia Macleay 1887 non Leach 1826] CW92
         |           |--*M. flavomaculatus (Macleay 1887) [=*Popillia flavomaculata] CW92
         |           |--M. leucothyreus Lea 1919 CW92
         |           `--M. niveosquamosus Lea 1919 CW92
         |         Pseudoschizognathus Ohaus 1904 CW92
         |           |--*P. schonfeldti Ohaus 1904 [incl. P. occidentalis Ohaus 1913] CW92
         |           |--P. lajoyi Ohaus 1913 CW92
         |           `--P. variicollis Ohaus 1904 CW92
         |         Repsimus Macleay 1819 CW92
         |           |--R. manicatus (Swartz 1817) CW92 [=Rutela manicata CW92; incl. Re. femoratus B35]
         |           |    |--R. m. manicatus (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |           |    `--R. m. montanus Lea 1919 CW92
         |           `--R. aeneus (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |         Saulostomus Waterhouse 1878 CW92
         |           |--*S. villosus Waterhouse 1878 CW92
         |           |--S. brunneoviridis Lea 1920 CW92
         |           |--S. felschei Ohaus 1904 CW92
         |           |--S. monteithi Carne 1985 CW92
         |           `--S. striatus Ohaus 1935 CW92
         |         Trioplognathus Ohaus 1904 CW92
         |           `--*T. griseopilosus (Ohaus 1901) [=Anoplognathus griseopilosus; incl. A. antiquus Arrow 1919] CW92
         |         Wambo Allsopp 1988 CW92
         |           `--*W. puticosus Allsopp 1988 CW92
         |--Anoplognathina CW92
         `--Schizognathus Fischer 1823 [Schizognathina] CW92
              |--*S. macleayi Fischer 1823 CW92
              |--S. apricagger Allsopp 1989 CW92
              |--S. burmeisteri Ohaus 1904 CW92
              |--S. compressicornis Ohaus 1898 CW92
              |--S. lucidus Ohaus 1904 CW92
              |--S. mesosternalis Ohaus 1912 CW92
              |--S. rugulosus Carne 1958 CW92
              `--S. viridiaeneus Ohaus 1904 CW92

Rutelinae incertae sedis:
  Parisolea F55
  Elcarmeniella Franz 1955 F55
    `--*E. striata Franz 1955 F55
  Leucothyreus MacLeay 1819 F55
    `--L. femoratus Burmeister 1844 F55
  Phalangogonia Burmeister 1844 F55
    |--P. obesa F55
    |--P. parilis F55
    `--P. punctata Franz 1955 F55
  Paracotalpa puncticollis C90
  Popillia japonica T90
  Heterosternus buprestoides Dupont 1832 B14
  Kibakoganea B14
    |--K. dohertyi B14
    |--K. sexmaculata (Kraatz 1900) B14
    `--K. sinica B14
  Fruhstorferia B14
  Masumotokoganea B14
  Pukupuku B14
  Ceroplophana B14
  Dicaulocephalus B14
  Didrepanephorus B14
  Mimela Kirby 1823 CW92
    |--M. chinensis B66
    |--M. chryseis Bates 1866 B66
    |--M. ignicauda Bates 1866 B66
    |--M. simplex Bates 1866 B66
    `--M. splendens B66

Amblyterus cicatricosus (Gyllenhal in Schönherr 1817) [=Melolontha cicatricosa; incl. *A. geminatus Macleay 1819] CW92

Anomala antiqua (Gyllenhal in Schönherr 1817) [=Melolontha antiqua; incl. A. australasiae Blackburn 1892] CW92

Anoplostethus Brullé 1837 [=Anoplosternus Guérin-Méneville 1838; incl. Panschizus Blackburn 1888] CW92

*Anoplostethus opalinus Brullé 1837 [=*Anoplosternus opalinus; incl. *Panschizus pallidus Blackburn 1888] CW92

Repsimus aeneus (Fabricius 1775) [=Melolontha aenea; incl. Scarabaeus aeratus Linnaeus 1790, Repsimus purpureipes Macleay 1871] CW92

Repsimus manicatus manicatus (Swartz 1817) [incl. Rutela bracteata Drapeiz 1819, Anoplognathus brownii Macleay 1819, *Repsimus brownii, A. dytiscoides Macleay 1819] CW92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Rutelinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 359–382. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Scarabaeidae Rutelinae (Ins. Col.) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 201–207.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Last updated: 6 October 2018.

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