Anthicidae

Notoxus litigiosus, from Dmitry Telnov.


Belongs within: Polyphaga.

The Anthicidae are a family of elongate, usually hairy beetles in which most species have the back of the head constricted into a distinct 'neck'. A number of genera, such as Notoxus and Pseudonotoxus also have a tuberculate anterior projection of the pronotum overhanging the head; this projection is absent in genera such as Anthicus and Formicomus. Most species are found in decaying vegetation or leaf litter, and are believed to be scavengers.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate, black, brown, yellow or red, sometimes bicoloured, almost always clothed with decumbent and/or erect hairs. Antennal club, if present, very weak; head usually abruptly constricted behind eyes to form neck, antennal insertions exposed; eyes not to only slightly emarginate; apical segment of maxillary palp slightly to strongly expanded apically, often securiform or cultriform; pronotum without lateral carinae, almost always constricted at middle, near base, or at base and apex; mesepisterna meet or almost meet at middle; penultimate tarsal segment lobed beneath; first two ventrites usually free. Larvae elongate, parallel-sided, lightly sclerotised or occasionally with dark and light pattern dorsally. Antennal sensorium usually broad and dome-like; usually with single pair of well-developed stemmata (occasionally five); median endocarina sometimes present; mandibular mola usually reduced and sub-basal; mala usually simple (occasionally cleft); S9 usually simple (occasionally two basal teeth); urogomphi, if present, often with accessory mesal processes near base; segment 10 more or less transverse, posteroventrally oriented.

<==Anthicidae
    |--Zealanthicus sulcatus Werner & Chandler 1995 ED04
    |--Lagrioida AY04
    |--Amblyderus H61
    |--Mecynotarsus H61
    |--Tomoderus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
    |    `--T. microcephalus Pic 1903 H61
    |--Pseudonotoxus Pic 1899 H61
    |    |--P. brevis H61
    |    |--P. photophilus van Hille 1961 H61
    |    `--P. punctatus Pic 1932 H61
    |--Endomia Castelnau 1840 [incl. Ochthenomus Schmidt 1842] H61
    |    |--‘Ochthenomus’ bivittatus Truqui 1855 G89
    |    |--E. elongata (Pic 1895) [=Ochthenomus elongatus] H61
    |    |--E. obscura (Pic 1895) [=Ochthenomus obscurus] H61
    |    `--‘Ochthenomus’ punctatus LaFerté-Sénectère 18476 E12
    |--Formicomus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
    |    |--F. caeruleus (Thunberg 1789) [=Notoxus caeruleus] H61
    |    |--F. cyanopterus G89
    |    |--F. rubricollis La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
    |    |--F. simplicicruralis van Hille 1950 H61
    |    |--F. subtruncatus Pic 1899 H61
    |    |--F. tropicalis Krekich-Strassoldo 1928 H61
    |    `--F. tuberculifer Pic 1897 H61
    |--Notoxus Geoffroy 1762 H61
    |    |--N. alluaudi Pic 1907 [incl. N. madecassus Pic 1953] H61
    |    |--N. brincki van Hille 1961 H61
    |    |--N. cucullatus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
    |    |--N. guttulatus Buck 1958 H61
    |    |--N. hiltoni van Hille 1961 H61
    |    |--N. inconstans La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
    |    |--N. litigiosus H61
    |    |--N. mauritanicus LaFerté-Sénectère 1847 E12
    |    |--N. pilosus H61
    |    |--N. pulcher Pic 1901 H61
    |    |--N. rudebecki van Hille 1961
    |    `--N. scenicus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
    `--Anthicus Paykull 1798 H61
         |  i. s.: A. achillei Pic 1895 H61
         |         A. balteatus G89
         |         A. biplagiatus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
         |         A. bremei Laf. 1842 G89
         |         A. caeruleipennis LaFerté-Sénectère 1847 E12
         |         A. ‘caeruleipennis’ Pic 1904 non LaFerté-Sénectère 1847 H61
         |         A. calcaratus van Hille 1961 H61
         |         A. crinitus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
         |         A. dentatipes Pic 1895 H61
         |         A. floralis Linné 1758 H61 [=Meloe floralis G89]
         |         A. formicarius Goeze 1777 H61
         |         A. grandis Pic 1895 H61
         |         A. hesperi M83
         |         A. instygius Pic 1901 H61
         |         A. ocreatus LaFerté-Sénectère 1847 E12
         |         A. pauperculus LaFerté-Sénectère 1847 E12
         |         A. pontageanus Pic 1932 H61
         |         A. robustithorax Pic 1913 H61
         |         A. rudebecki Bonadona in van Hille 1961 H61
         |         A. scabricollis LaFerté-Sénectère 1847 E12
         |         A. spectabilis La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
         |         A. strictus M83
         |         A. stygius La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
         |         A. subapicalis Pic 1903 H61
         |         A. vanhillei Pic 1948 H61
         `--A. (Aulacoderus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848) H61
              |--A. (A.) albitarsis La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 H61
              |--A. (A.) amplus Pic 1895 H61
              |--A. (A.) apterus van Hille 1961 H61
              |--A. (A.) bicoloritarsis Pic 1948 H61
              |--A. (A.) flavopictus La Ferté-Sénectère 1848 [incl. A. flavopictus var. ornatipennis Pic 1897] H61
              |--A. (A.) friwaldskyi H61
              |--A. (A.) hanstroemi van Hille 1961 H61
              |--A. (A.) lutopictus van Hille 1961 H61
              |--A. (A.) martini Pic 1897 H61
              |--A. (A.) middletoniensis van Hille 1961 H61
              `--A. (A.) poweri van Hille 1961 H61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[ED04] Ewers, R. M., & R. K. Didham. 2004. A first assessment of New Zealand beetles restricted to large forest areas. Weta 27: 33-40.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[H61] Hille, J. C. van. 1961. Coleoptera: Anthicidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 217-258. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 543-683. Melbourned University Press.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

1 comment:

  1. A species of Formicomus was a pollen-foraging pollinator of nutmeg in southern India, so clearly diverse feeders.

    ReplyDelete

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS