Fossil of the Upper Oligocene Palaeolagus, from here.

Belongs within: Boreoeutheria.
Contains: Rodentia, Lagomorpha.

Glires is the mammalian clade that unites the Rodentia (rodents) with the Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares and pikas). Members of the clade are mostly smaller herbivorous mammals, with enlarged incisors that are open-rooted and ever-growing. Early fossil groups of Glires include the Eurymylidae from the Palaeocene and Eocene of Asia, which resemble rodents in lacking the third upper incisor and second upper premolar but resemble lagomorphs in having cheek teeth with transverse shearing ridges and upper cheek teeth larger than the lower ones (Meng et al. 2003).

Synapomorphies (from Meng et al. 2003): Incisor enamel restricted primarily to labial surface; first upper and lower incisors absent; second deciduous lower incisor ever-growing and extended beneath m3 and beyond; second lower incisor replacement absent; second deciduous upper incisor large and extending into maxilla; second upper incisor replacement absent; incisors transversely compressed with rounded anterior surface; upper canine absent; first upper and lower premolars absent; second lower premolar absent; second upper premolar conical; third upper premolar oval in crown view and multicuspate; no centrocrista on upper molars; lower molar paraconid absent; lower diastema significant; horizontal ramus of mandible deep and short with symphysis tapered anteriorly; angular process of mandible expanded; mandibular condyle anteroposteriorly oriented; infraorbital canal short; nasolacrimal foramen between lacrimal and maxilla; nasolacrimal duct lateral to posterior part of incisor; premaxilla on rostrum substantial but tapering anteriorly; posterior edge of anterior zygomatic root aligning with M2 or M1; orbits shifted anteriorly; postglenoid process absent; glenoid fossa anterodorsal.

Glires [Mixodontia]
    |--Simplicidentata [Paramyidae, Rodentiamorpha] AM05
    |    |--Marfilomys MHL03
    |    `--+--+--Cocomys [Cocomyidae] OB13
    |       |  |    `--C. lingchaensis OB13
    |       |  `--Rodentia MHL03
    |       `--Paramys Leidy 1873 OB13, C77
    |            |  i. s.: P. adamus MHL03
    |            |         P. bicuspis HUG17
    |            |         P. compressidens HUG17
    |            |         P. copei WR07
    |            |         P. major HUG17
    |            |         P. taurus WR07
    |            |--P. atavus B74
    |            |--P. delicatior (Leidy 1871) B74, C77 [=Plesiarctomys delicatior C77]
    |            `--+--P. excavatus B74
    |               `--Uriscus B74
    `--Duplicidentata [Lagomorphamorpha, Mimotonida, Mimotonidae] AM05
         |  i. s.: Anatolmylus MHL03
         |         Mytonolagus B74
         |         Dawsonolagus antiquus OB13
         |--+--Gomphos elkema AM05
         |  `--+--Mimolagus rodens Bohlin 1951 AM05, MHL03
         |     |--Mimotona wana AM05, OB13
         |     `--+--Desmatolagus AM05
         |        `--Neolagomorpha A99
         |             |--Lagomorpha AM05
         |             `--Palaeolagus Leidy 1856 AM05, A99 [Palaeolagida, Palaeolaginae]
         |                  |--P. burkei D07
         |                  |--P. haydeni MHL03
         |                  |--P. hemirhizis D07
         |                  |--P. intermedius D07
         |                  |--P. philoi D07
         |                  |--P. primus D07
         |                  `--P. temnodon D07
         `--Eurymylidae MHL03
              |  i. s.: Zagmys [Zagmyinae] MHL03
              |         Nikolomylus MHL03
              |         Aktashmys MHL03
              |         Khaychina [Khaychininae] MHL03
              |         Hypsimylus [Hypsimylinae] MHL03
              |--Heomys AM05
              `--Eurymylinae MHL03
                   |  i. s.: Asiaparamys MHL03
                   |         Kazygurtia MHL03
                   |         Eomylus MHL03
                   |         Amar MHL03
                   |         Decipomys MHL03
                   |--Eurymylus Matthew & Granger 1925 AM05, MHL03 [incl. Baenomys Matthew & Granger 1925 MHL03]
                   |    `--*E. laticeps Matthew & Granger 1925 [incl. *Baenomys ambiguus Matthew & Granger 1925] MHL03
                   `--Rhombomylidae MHL03
                        |--Matutinia nitidulus [=Rhombomylus nitidulus] MHL03
                        `--Rhombomylus Zhai 1978 AM05, MHL03
                             `--*R. turpanensis Zhai 1978 [incl. R. laianensis Zhai et al. 1976] MHL03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AM05] Asher, R. J., J. Meng, J. R. Wible, M. C. McKenna, G. W. Rougier, D. Dashzeveg & M. J. Novacek. 2005. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science 307: 1091–1094.

[A99] Averianov, A. O. 1999. Phylogeny and classification of Leporidae (Mammalia, Lagomorpha). Vestnik Zoologii 33 (1–2): 41–48.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1–160.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006.

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