Erotylinae

Pleasing fungus beetle Megalodacne heros, photographed by Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Erotylinae are a clade of beetles associated with fungi, usually macroscopic Basidiomycetes (Leschen 2003).

Characters (from Leschen 2003): Subapical serrations of mandible absent; lacidian usually with two lacinial spines; lateral pockets present on mentum; medial carina of mentum usually present; width of apical labial palpomere greater than or equal to length, palpomere often securiform; width of ligular membrane equal to prementum; transverse gular line usually present, usually as shallow or beadlike groove; antennal insertions usually hidden in dorsal view; supraocular line usually present to level beyond eye; transverse line absent on vertex of head; two stridulatory files present or absent on vertex of head; pronotal shape variable, not constricted at base; anterior angles of pronotum well developed; anterior margin of prosternum smooth; pronotal pits absent; glandular ducts usually present in lateral carina of pronotum, unitubulate; prosternal glandular ducts present or absent; procoxal cavity internally open, externally closed by prosternum and hypomeron; edge of hypomeron smooth; mesoventral glandular ducts usually present; mesepisternal fovea absent; mesometaventral articulation usually dicondylic; width of mesoventral process usually greater than or equal to mesocoxa; submesocoxal lines present or absent; metaventral pores present or absent; metepisternal ctenidium absent; abdominal ventrites 1 and 2 connate; abdominal cuticular glandular ducts present or absent at disk and margin; abdominal calli present or absent; metafurcal lamina usually present with well developed median stalk; spermatheca rounded or elongate; apical pit of spermatheca usually absent; acessory gland of spermatheca usually present; length of tarsomere 1 usually equal to tarsomere 2; tarsomere 4 usually reduced and hidden in ventral view; tarsal shelf of tarsomere 5 present; empodium usually with two setae; elytral punctation striate without scutellary striole; elytra usually narrowly explanate; radial cell present; wedge cell absent.

<==Erotylinae
    |--Dacnini L03
    |    |--Cryptodacne L03
    |    |--Dacne quadrimaculata L03
    |    `--Hoplepiscapha Lea 1922 L03
    |         `--H. longicornis L03
    `--+--Tritomini L03
       |    |--Tritoma atriventris L03
       |    `--Lybanodes L03
       |         |--L. bicolor L03
       |         |--L. castaneus L03
       |         |--L. lescheni L03
       |         |--L. rostratus L03
       |         |--L. sasquatch L03
       |         |--L. similis L03
       |         `--L. stigmatus L03
       `--+--Megalodacne [Megalodacnini] L03
          |    |--M. fasciatus L03
          |    `--M. heros L03
          `--+--Encaustini L03
             |    |--Aulachochilus L03
             |    `--Encaustes AY04
             `--Erotylini L03
                  |--Thallis polita L03
                  |--Erotylus Fabricius 1775 L03
                  |--Brachysphaenus L03
                  |--Coccimorphus L03
                  `--Homoeotelus L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): Phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1-108.

Cryptophagidae

Specimen of Cryptophagus, photographed by Mike Quinn.


Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Cryptophagidae are small beetles that feed on mould and other fungi under bark and in leaf litter. Some cryptophagids may also be found in stored foodstuffs.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Oblong to elongate, slightly flattened, usually red or brown in colour and clothed with erect and decumbent hairs (rarely globose and/or glabrous). Antennal insertions exposed, lateral and well separated or more or less approximate; pronotum subquadrate with distinct lateral carinae or more rounded, sometimes with paired glandular callosities at anterior angles or near middle; prosternal process moderately broad and overlapping the mesosternum; elytra with apically widened sutural flanges and incomplete epipleura; trochanters more or less elongate; ventrite 1 much longer than 2. Larvae elongate, subcylindrical to flattened, lightly sclerotised, with short and straight or sharply curved urogomphi (sometimes absent). Prostheca usually serrate, mala falcate.

<==Cryptophagidae
    |--Atomaria ruficornis L03
    |--Ephistemus globulus M83
    |--Micrambina rutila M83
    |--Myrecoxenus atomaroides M83
    |--Henoticus [incl. Cryptophagops Grouvelle 1919] L03
    |    `--Henoticus alluaudi [=Cryptophilus alluaudi, *Cryptophagops alluaudi] L03
    `--Cryptophagus L03
         |--C. affinis G89
         |--C. castaneus T27
         |--C. difficilis L03
         |--C. distinguendus Sturm 1845 PN02
         `--C. scutellatus Newman 1834 PN02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 543-683. Melbourned University Press.

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): Phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1-108.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[PN02] Poggi, R., G. Nonveiller, A. Colla, D. Pavićević & T. Rađa. 2001-2002. Thaumastocephalini, a new tribe of Pselaphinae for Thaumastocephalus folliculipalpus n. gen., n. sp., an interesting new troglobious species from central Dalmatia (Croatia) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 94: 1-20.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

Lema

Three-lined potato beetle Lema trilineata, by M. Picker & C. Griffiths.


Belongs within: Phytophaga.

Lema is a genus of leaf beetles found almost worldwide. Larvae of this genus form a protective covering for themselves from their own faecal matter, discarding it when they bury themselves below ground to pupate (Jacoby 1908).

Characters (from Jacoby 1908): Head generally constricted posteriorly; antennae filiform; pronotum generally with one, sometimes with two, sulci, an anterior and a posterior one. Elytra punctate-striate. Legs elongate, femora moderately thickened, claws united at base as far as middle.

<==Lema
    |--L. beccarii J89b
    |--L. coromandeliana J89b
    |--L. femorata [incl. L. quadripunctata] J89a
    |--L. haematomelas J89b
    |--L. lacordairei J89a
    |--L. modiglianii Jacoby 1889 J89b
    |--L. postrema Bates 1866 B66
    |--L. rufotestacea J89a
    |--L. rugifrons Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--L. semifulva Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--L. stevensi J89a
    |--L. trilineata G22
    `--L. wallacei J89a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339-355.

[G22] Girault, A. A. 1922. The North American species of Emersonella and Entedon with excuses, etc. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 161-163).

[J89a] Jacoby, M. 1889a. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII. – List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 147-237.

[J89b] Jacoby, M. 1889b. List of the phytophagous Coleoptera collected by Signor Modigliani at Nias and Sumatra, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 278-287.

Jacoby, M. 1908. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Coleoptera. Chrysomelidae. Vol. 1. Taylor & Francis: London.

Phytophaga

Car condensatus, from Bouchard (2014).


Belongs within: Cucujiformia.
Contains: Nodostoma, Chrysomelidae, Megalopodidae, Cerambycidae, Belidae, Nemonychidae, Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brentidae, Brachyceridae, Curculionidae.

The Phytophaga is a major clade of beetles, including the Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles), Cerambycidae (longicorn beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils). Phytophagans are united by the structure of the pseudotetramerous tarsus, with the fourth tarsal segment minute and concealed between lobes of the third, and of the internal male reproductive organs, with a reduced aedeagus (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The clade's name reflects the plant-feeding habits of the vast majority of its species; more than 99% of the more than 110,000 described species are plant feeders.

Members of the Curculionoidea have the front of the head extended into an elongate rostrum (secondarily reduced in some subgroups) with a concordant reduction and fusion of many of the mouthparts (such as reduction or loss of the labrum); they also have distinctly clubbed antennae with a long scape lying in a scrobe (groove on the side of the rostrum) (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). In the largest family of weevils, the Curculionidae, the antennae have a distinct elbow, but such an elbow is absent in most members of the other weevil families. Members of the Chrysomeloidea (Chrysomelidae and Cerambycidae) lack a distinct club on the antenna.

The classification of the Curculionoidea has been subject to much debate between authors. For instance, members of the Caridae, a small group of weevils found in Australia and South America, have been variously classified within the Attelabidae, Belidae or Brentidae, and are now generally treated as their own family (Bouchard 2014).

Phytophaga [Bruchelae, Chrysomeliformia, Chrysomelomorpha]
    |--Chrysomeloidea GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Cerambyomima MW15
    |    |--Chrysomelidae GE05
    |    `--+--+--Megalopodidae M05
    |       |  `--Oxypeltidae MW15
    |       |       |--Oxypeltus quadrispinosus B14
    |       |       `--Cheloderus B14
    |       |            |--C. childreni Gray 1832 B14
    |       |            `--C. penai B14
    |       `--+--Cerambycidae MW15
    |          `--+--Anoplodermatinae [Anoplodermatidae] MW15
    |             |    |--Migdolus MW15
    |             |    `--Hypocephalus [Hypocephalini] B14
    |             |         `--H. armatus Desmarest 1832 B14
    |             `--Orsodacnidae MW15
    |                  |  i. s.: Orsodacne C01
    |                  |           |--O. cerasi C01
    |                  |           `--O. ruficollis [=Lema ruficollis] L02
    |                  `--Aulacoscelidinae B14
    |                       |--Janbechynea B14
    |                       `--Aulacoscelis B14
    |                            |--A. appendiculata Cox & Windsor 1999 B14
    |                            `--A. melanocera B14
    `--Curculionoidea [Adelognatha, Cryptoplides, Curculionites, Heteromorphi, Rhynchophora] GE05
         |  i. s.: Episomus pauperatus P66
         |         Etheophanus C88
         |           |--E. striatus C88
         |           `--+--E. optandus C88
         |              `--+--E. nitidellus C88
         |                 `--E. pinguis C88
         |         Dysticheus rotundicollis BM76
         |         Minyomerus languidus BM76
         |         Dyslobus lecontei BM76
         |         Mahakamia kampmeinerti B14
         |         Sciopithes obscurus WZ10
         |         Metamasius quadrilineatus WZ10
         |         Proterhinus O94 [Aglycyderidae W86, Proterhinidae]
         |         Eobelidae W86
         |         Allocorynidae LB91
         |         Cretonanophyes P02 [Eccoptarthridae GE05]
         |           `--C. longirostris P02
         |         Rhina Latreille 1802 L02
         |           |--R. barbicornis [=Curculio barbicornis] L02
         |           `--R. cerasi (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio cerasi L02]
         |         Brachyrhinus Latreille 1802 L02
         |           |--B. ligustici (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio ligustici L02]
         |           |--B. lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio lineatus L02]
         |           |--B. niger [=Curculio niger] L02
         |           `--B. pyri (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio pyri L02]
         |         Campyloscelinae Z93
         |           |--Phaenomerus [Phaenomerini] Z93
         |           `--Tomicoproctus Z93
         |         Aades cultratus (Fabricius 1775) [=Curculio cultratus; incl. C. bicristatus Fabricius 1801] Z93
         |         Alatidotasia exclamationis (Fabricius 1775) [=Curculio exclamationis] Z93
         |         Catoptes Z93
         |           |--C. brevicornis (Broun 1904) (see below for synonymy) E02
         |           `--C. interruptus (Fabricius 1781) [=Curculio interruptus] Z93
         |         Phytoscaphus triangularis [incl. Curculio lanatus Fabricius 1801] Z93
         |         Aoplocnemis clavipes (Fabricius 1775) [=Lixus clavipes] Z93
         |         Cecyropa modesta M94
         |         Mecysmoderes Schoenherr 1837 M94
         |           `--M. stylicornis M94
         |         Peribleptus Schoenherr 1843 M94
         |           |--P. dealbatus (Boisduval 1835) [=Alcides dealbatus, Paepalosomus dealbatus] M94
         |           `--P. scalptus M94
         |--Belidae MW15
         `--+--+--Rhynchitoma MW15
            |  `--+--Nemonychidae MW15
            |     `--Anthribidae MW15
            `--+--Attelabidae MW15
               `--+--+--Brentidae MW15
                  |  `--+--Brachyceridae MW15
                  |     `--Curculionidae MW15
                  `--Caridae [Carinae] MW15
                       |--Cretocar luzzii GE05
                       |--Caenominurus B14
                       `--Car Blackburn 1897 Z94
                            |--*C. condensatus Blackburn 1897 M94
                            |--C. intermedius B14
                            `--C. pini B14

Phytophaga incertae sedis:
  Diapromorpha J89a
    |--D. melanophthalma [=Aspidolopha melanophthalma] J89a
    `--D. melanopus J89a
  Gynandrophthalma J89a
    |--G. divisa Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--G. sexmaculata Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Melitonoma J89a
    |--M. affine Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--M. indica Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Chrysolampra J89a
    |--C. curvipes Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--C. splendens J89a
  Nodostoma J89b
  Aulacolepis decorata J89a
  Demotina J89a
    |--D. balyi Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--D. serraticollis J89a
  Heteraspis J89b
    |--H. clypeata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--H. hebe J89a
    |--H. hirta J89b
    |--H. quadrifasciata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--H. variegata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--H. vestita J89a
  Acrothinium violaceum Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Corynodes J89a
    |--C. approximans J89a
    |--C. chalybeus J89a
    |--C. fulvicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--C. gratiosus J89a
    |--C. igneicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--C. mouhoti J89a
    |--C. peregrinus J89a
    |--C. pretiosus J89a
    `--C. pyrospilotus J89a
  Agasta formosa J89a
  Eumela cyanicollis J89a
  Lygaria westermanni J89a
  Plagiodera marginipennis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Sphaeroderma J89a
    |--S. biplagiata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--S. geminata J89a
    |--S. nigricollis J89a
    |--S. orientalis J89a
    |--S. piceicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--S. varipes [=Eucycla varipes] J89a
  Argopus J89b
    |--A. angulicollis J89a
    |--A. indicus Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--A. laevipennis J89b
    `--A. unicolor J89a
  Sphaerophysa piceicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Nisotra bowringi J89a
  Hyphasis J89a
    |--H. feae Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--H. femoralis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--H. indica J89a
    |--H. limbatipennis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--H. nigricollis J89a
    |--H. nigricornis J89a
    |--H. parvula J89a
    `--H. unicolor Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Oedionychis birmanica Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Enneamera J89b
    |--E. apicalis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--E. sumatrensis J89b
  Pseudodera J89a
    |--P. bifasciata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--P. xanthospila J89a
  Amphimela mouhoti J89a
  Clitea picta J89a
  Podontia J89a
    |--P. affinis J89a
    `--P. quattuordecimpunctata J89a
  Ophrida marmorea J89a
  Bonesia J89a
    |--B. balyi Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--B. clarki J89a
  Morphosphaera sumatrana J89a
  Clitena cyanea J89a
  Hoplasoma J89b
    |--H. ceylonensis J89b
    `--H. ventralis J89a
  Paridea thoracica J89a
  Pseudocophora J89a
    |--P. birmanica Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--P. buqueti J89a
  Cneorane fulvicornis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Mimastra J89a
    |--M. chenelli J89a
    |--M. gracilicornis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--M. polita Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Luperodes J89b
    |--L. alboplagiatus J89a
    |--L. duodecimmaculata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--L. piceicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--L. scutellatus J89b
  Malaxia viridis [=Glyptolus viridis] J89a
  Sastroides birmanica Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Menippus J89a
    |--M. cervinus J89a
    |--M. cynicus J89a
    `--M. dimidiaticornis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Haplosonyx J89b
    |--H. nigricollis J89b
    |--H. parvulus J89b
    |--H. scutellata J89a
    `--H. sublaevicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Sphenoraia J89a
    |--S. bicolor J89a
    |--S. duodecimmaculata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--S. fulgida J89a
  Leptarthra J89a
    |--L. dohrni J89a
    `--L. fraternalis J89a
  Cynorta melanocephala Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Antipha J89a
    |--A. birmanica Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--A. bretinghami J89a
    |--A. concolor Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--A. discoidalis J89a
    |--A. postica J89a
    `--A. puncticollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Ochralea J89a
    |--O. divisa Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--O. nigripes J89a
  Aenidea J89b
    |--A. apicalis Jacoby 1889 J89b
    `--A. sumatrensis J89a
  Syoplia javanensis J89b
  Dorydea J89a
    |--D. basalis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--D. indica J89a
    `--D. insignis J89a
  Candezea feae Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Platyxantha gracilis Jacoby 1889 J89a
  Solenia J89a
    |--S. collaris J89a
    `--S. indica Jacoby 1889 [=Euphyma indica] J89a
  Pyropida sumptuosa J89b
  Sphaerometopa acroleuca J89b
  Imolia nigrofasciata J89b
  Lina B66
    |--L. aenea B66
    `--L. formosana Bates 1866 B66
  Adorium chrysomeloides Bates 1866 B66
  Rhinosimus planirostris [=Anthribus planirostris] L02
  Aesernia M86

Catoptes brevicornis (Broun 1904) [=Platyomidia brevicornis non Catoptes brevicornis Sharp 1886 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)] E02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J89a] Jacoby, M. 1889a. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII.—List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 147–237.

[J89b] Jacoby, M. 1889b. List of the phytophagous Coleoptera collected by Signor Modigliani at Nias and Sumatra, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 278–287.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera" (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P66] Pascoe, F. P. 1866. Catalogue of longicorn Coleoptera collected in the island of Penang by James Lamb, Esq. Part I. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 222–267.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WZ10] Wood, D. M., & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Tachinidae (tachinid flies, parasitic flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1343–1417. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Colaspoides

Type of Colaspoides igneicollis, from here.


Belongs within: Phytophaga.

Colaspoides is a widely distributed genus of leaf beetles, most species of which are metallic in coloration. They are generally ovate and convex in shape, and the tibiae are not emarginate (Jacoby 1908).

Characters (from Jacoby 1908): Somewhat short and oblong in shape, rather convex. Head deeply inserted; eyes rather large, oblong, more or less sinuate within; antennae filiform or subfiliform, generally long and slender, terminal segments very slightly thickened, second segment half the length of first, third to sixth segments elongate. Pronotum transverse, nearly as wide at base as elytra, narrowed anteriorly, lateral margins more or less rounded. Elytra ovate or oblong, more or less regularly punctured, punctures sometimes in rows. Legs variable; femora slightly thickened, sometimes with a tooth beneath; first tarsal segment rather elongate, but as a rule shorter than following two united; claws appendiculate. Prosternum rather large, of variable shape, generally longer than broad, posterior margin truncate; anterior margin of thoracic episternum convex.

<==Colaspoides
    |--C. apicicornis J89b
    |--C. feae Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--C. fulvicornis [=Colasposoma fulvicorne] J89a
    |--C. igneicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--C. insignis J89b
    |--C. laevicollis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--C. laportei J89a
    |--C. lefevrei Jacoby 1889 J89b
    |--C. nigritarsis J89b
    |--C. pallidula Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--C. rafflesi J89a
    |--C. speciosa J89a
    `--C. viridimarginatus J89b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J89a] Jacoby, M. 1889a. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII. – List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 147-237.

[J89b] Jacoby, M. 1889b. List of the phytophagous Coleoptera collected by Signor Modigliani at Nias and Sumatra, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 278-287.

Jacoby, M. 1908. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Coleoptera. Chrysomelidae. Vol. 1. Taylor & Francis: London.

Nodostoma

Type specimen of Nodostoma subcostatum, from here.


Belongs within: Phytophaga.

Nodostoma is a genus of leaf beetles found in eastern and southern Asia, distinguished by their transverse, anteriorly strongly narrowed pronotum with more or less distinctly angulated sides (Jacoby 1908).

Characters (from Jacoby 1908): Body ovate or oblong; antennae filiform, apical joints sometimes slightly thickened. Pronotum generally transverse, narrowed in front, rarely subcylindrical, more or less angulate at sides near base, with narrow sulcus near anterior margin. Elytra generally wider at base than thorax, more or less deeply depressed below base, punctate-striate, sometimes metallic, generally flavous or fulvous. Prosternum broad, subquadrate, base truncate. Legs rather long; femora incrassate, frequently with small tooth; intermediate and posterior tibiae emarginate at apex, claws appendiculate.

<==Nodostoma
    |--N. aeneipenne J89a
    |--N. aeneomicans J89a
    |--N. biplagiatum Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--N. frontale J89a
    |--N. gratum J89b
    |--N. nigrofasciatum Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--N. pallidulum J89a
    |--N. plagiosum J89a
    |--N. rufum J89b
    |--N. subcostatum Jacoby 1889 J89a
    `--N. trivittatum J89a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J89a] Jacoby, M. 1889a. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII. – List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 147-237.

[J89b] Jacoby, M. 1889b. List of the phytophagous Coleoptera collected by Signor Modigliani at Nias and Sumatra, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 278-287.

Jacoby, M. 1908. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Coleoptera. Chrysomelidae. Vol. 1. Taylor & Francis: London.

Bulimulidae

Bothriembryon tasmanicus, photographed by Ken Harris.


Belongs within: Orthalicoidea.

The Bulimulidae is a group of land snails including the Australasian Bothriembryon and a number of Neotropical taxa. Within the Bulimulidae, the Odontostomini are distinguished from other taxa by the presence of only a small number of mandibular plates, and of dents and/or lamellae narrowing the lamellae (Breure 1979).

Characters (from Breure 1979): Mandibula with large number of plates, smooth surface and amorphous internal structure; radula with central teeth mono- or tricuspid, and transverse tooth rows straight or V-shaped; genitalia with genital atrium absent, penis cylindrical, penis appendix absent, proximal penis sheath present or absent, flagellum present, retractor muscle slender and thin, spermoviduct not torted, spermathecal duct as long as spermoviduct or reduced; pallial organs with sigmurethrous ureters, weak to strong pulmonary veins, adrectal ureter open or closed; columellar muscle present; protoconch sculptured.

<==Bulimulidae [Bulimulinae]
    |  i. s.: ‘Pyrgus’ Albers 1850 non Hübner 1819 BR05
    |         Quiros Solem 1959 S88
    |         Hyperaulax Pilsbry 1897 AP90
    |         Rhabdotus alternatus (Say 1830) PM88
    |--Simpulopsis Beck 1837 [Simpulopsini] BR05
    |--Odontostomini [Odontostomidae, Odontostominae] BR05
    |    |--Odontostomus Beck 1837 BR05
    |    |--Tomogeres Montfort 1810 [Tomogeridae] BR05
    |    `--Lucerna Röding 1798 [Lucernidae, Lucerninae] BR05
    |         `--*L. ringens [=Helix ringens] BR05
    `--Bulimulini BR05
         |--Bulimulus Leach 1814 BR05
         |    `--B. unicolor (Sowerby 1833) PM88
         |--Berendtia Crosse & Fischer 1869 [Berendtiinae, Berendtinae] BR05
         `--Bothriembryon Pilsbry 1894 BR05 [incl. Tasmanembryon Iredale 1933 S88; Bothriembryontidae]
              |--B. angasianus (Pfeiffer 1864) S88
              |--B. barretti Iredale 1930 S88
              |--B. brazieri W08
              |--B. bulla W08
              |--B. costulatus (Lamarck 1822) W08
              |--B. decresensis Cotton 1940 S88
              |--B. kingii W08
              |--B. mastersi (Cox 1867) S88
              |--B. melo W08
              |--B. onslowi (Cox 1864) W08
              |--B. praecursor McMichael 1968 S88
              |--B. rhodostoma M54
              |--B. spenceri (Tate 1894) [=Liparus spenceri] S88
              `--B. tasmanicus (Pfeiffer 1853) [=B. (Tasmanembryon) tasmanicus] S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AP90] Auffenberg, K. & R. W. Portell. 1990. A new fossil land snail (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Polygyridae) from the Middle Miocene of northern Florida. Nautilus 103 (4): 143-148.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

Breure, A. S. H. 1979. Systematics, phylogeny and zoogeography of Bulimulinae (Mollusca). Zoologische Verhandelingen 168: 1-200.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In The Archipelago of the Recherche (J. M. Willis, ed.) pp. 55-63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[PM88] Polaco, O. J. & W. Mendl. 1988. Occurrence of mites in Mexican land snails. Nautilus 102 (3): 129.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Terrestrial gastropods of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 21-24.

Orthalicoidea

Holotype of Cerion (Maynardia) agassizii, from here.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.
Contains: Bulimulidae, Orthalicinae.

The Orthalicoidea are a group of relatively high-spired land snails. Members of the group are most diverse in the Americas (particularly the Neotropics), but numerous species are also known from Australasia.The Placostylidae include the flax snails of the genus Placostylus, large snails found on islands of the southwest Pacific. Among the more familiar members of the Orthalicoidea is Cerion, a genus restricted to the Caribbean but known for its high degree of morphological diversity within the region.

Characters (from Herbert & Mitchell 2009): Genitalia with accessory structures absent; phallus complex extremely long; penis, epiphallus and flagellum little differentiated; penial retractor muscle short, inserting at flagellum tip; vas deferens extremely thin, mostly embedded in wall of penis and epiphallus; bursa copulatrix duct long, diverticulum absent. Pulmonary cavity sigmurethrous, secondary ureter closed for almost entire length. Foot holopodous, foot sole undivided.

<==Orthalicoidea [Bulimulacea, Orthalicea] BR05
    |--Grangerella Cockerell 1915 [Grangerellidae] BR05
    |--Bulimulidae W08
    |--Megaspiridae BR05
    |    |--Megaspira Lea 1838 BR05
    |    `--Callionepion Pilsbry & Vanatta 1899 S88
    |--Coelociontidae [Coelociidae] BR05
    |    |--Perrieria Tapparone Canefri 1878 [Perrieriinae] BR05
    |    `--Coelocion Pilsbry 1904 [Coelociontinae] BR05
    |         `--C. australis (Forbes 1851) S88
    |--Placostylidae [Placostylinae] BR05
    |    |--Diplomorpha Ancey 1884 nec Meisner 1841 (ICBN) nec Griffith 1854 (ICBN) S88
    |    `--Placostylus Beck 1837 BR05
    |         |--P. bivaricosus [incl. P. bivaricosus var. solidus Etheridge 1891] F71
    |         |--P. bollonsi O81
    |         `--P. hongii O81
    |--Orthalicidae [Goniognatha] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Pseudostrombus BR05
    |    |         Drymaeus Albers 1850 BP90
    |    |           |--D. dormani BP90
    |    |           |--D. montagnei [=Otostomus (Drymaeus) montagnei] A66
    |    |           |--D. multilineatus BP90
    |    |           `--D. musivus [=Otostomus (Drymaeus) musivus] A66
    |    |         Naesiotus Albers 1850 BP90
    |    |         Rabdotus Albers 1850 BP90
    |    |           |--R. alternatus BP90
    |    |           |--R. dealbatus BP90
    |    |           |--R. laevapex C90
    |    |           `--R. schiedeanus C90
    |    |--Orthalicinae BR05
    |    `--Amphibuliminae [Amphibulimidae] BR05
    |         |--Amphibulima Lamarck 1805 BR05
    |         `--Peltella Gray 1855 [Peltellina, Peltellinae] BR05
    |--Urocoptidae BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Cochlodinella Pilsbry & Vanatta 1898 BP90
    |    |           `--C. poeyana BP90
    |    |         Metastoma Strebel 1880 BP90
    |    |           `--M. roemeri BP90
    |    |--Apoma Beck 1837 [Apomatinae, Apominae] BR05
    |    |--Brachypodella Beck 1837 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--Eucalodium Crosse & Fischer 1868 [Eucalodiidae, Eucalodiinae, Eucalodinae] BR05
    |    |--Tetrentodon Pilsbry 1903 [Tetredoninae, Tetrentodontinae] BR05
    |    |--Holospira Martens 1860 [Holospirinae] BR05
    |    |    `--H. goldfussi BP90
    |    |--Urocoptis Beck 1837 [Urocoptinae] BR05
    |    |    `--*U. cylindrus [=Turbo cylindrus] BR05
    |    `--Microceraminae [Microceramidae] BR05
    |         |--Johaniceramus Jaume & de la Torre 1972 [Johaniceraminae] BR05
    |         |--Macroceramus Guilding 1829 [Macroceraminae] BR05
    |         `--Microceramus Pilsbry & Vanatta 1898 BR05
    |              `--M. pontificus BP90
    `--Cerion Röding 1798 [Ceriidae, Cerioidea, Cerionidae, Cerionoidea] BR05
         |  i. s.: ‘Strophiops’ accuminator Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ adumbra Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ agrestina Maynard 1894 [=S. agristina, S. agsestina] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ agricola Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1919 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ albata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ albicostata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1924 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ albolabra Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ arbusta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1919 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ aviaria Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ balaena Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07 [=S. balaene, S. balanae (l. c.)] HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ bimarginata Maynard 1894 HB07
         |           |--S. b. bimarginata HB07
         |           `--S. b. cera Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         C. bryanti HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ caduca Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         C. caerulescens (Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920) [=Strophiops caerulescens] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ cana Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ candida Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ caprana Maynard 1919 [=S. capraia, S. capria] HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ carlotta Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ carnale Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ castra Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ cervina Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ cinerea Maynard 1894 HB07
         |           |--S. c. cinerea HB07
         |           `--S. c. mutata Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ columbiana Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ confusa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ copia Maynard 1889 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ crassa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ crescentia Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ cyclura Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ cylindriata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ degenis Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ dissimila Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ eburnia Maynard 1894 [=S. eburnea (l. c.)] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ elegantissima Maynard 1919 [=Multicostata elegantissima] HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ elongata Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ eurystoma Maynard 1896 [=S. eryrostoma] HB07
         |           |--S. e. eurystoma HB07
         |           `--S. e. ignota Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ exasperata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         C. exiguum (Maynard 1913) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ exorta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ extensa Maynard 1924 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ extranea Maynard 1924 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ extrema Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ fastigata Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ faxoni Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ ferruginea Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ fincastlei Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ fitzgeraldi Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ flamea Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ fragilis Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ fruticosa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ fulminea Maynard & Clapp 1915 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ fulvia Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ genetiva Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 [=S. genitiva] HB07
         |         C. glans (Küster 1844) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |           |--C. g. glans HB07
         |           `--‘Strophia’ g. grisea Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ grayi Maynard 1894
         |           |--S. g. grayi HB07
         |           |--S. g. gigantea Maynard 1894 HB07
         |           `--S. g. pumilia Maynard 1894 [=S. g. pumilla] HB07
         |         C. gubernatorium (Crosse 1869) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ hartbennetii Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ helena Maynard 1914 HB07
         |         C. hyattii (Maynard 1913) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ imperfecta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         C. incanum BP90
         |         ‘Strophiops’ inconstans Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         C. inconsuetum (Maynard 1913) [=Strophiops inconsueta] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ inexpecta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ inornata Maynard 1919 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ inquita Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 [=S. inquieta] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ intercalaria Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ jenneyi Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         C. laeve (Plate 1907) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ latonia Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ lenticularia Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         C. lentiginosum (Maynard 1889) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ leucophera Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1925 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ leva Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ litorea Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ lobata Maynard 1919 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ mariae Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ marmorosa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ mayoi Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ media Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ migratoria Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ mitra Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ mixta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ mobile Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ mutatoria Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ nana Maynard 1889 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ navalis Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 [=S. navalia] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ nebula Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ neglecta Maynard 1894 [=Strophiops neglecta] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ normanii Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 [=S. normandi] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ novita Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ nuda Maynard 1889 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ obscura Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ obtusa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ ornatularufina Maynard 1913 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ oscula Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ palmata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1919 HB07
         |           |--S. p. palmata HB07
         |           `--S. p. minuta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ panda Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         C. pannosum (Maynard 1889) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ peravita Maynard 1919 [=S. perantiqua Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ persuasa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ picturata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ pilsbryi Maynard 1894 HB07
         |           |--S. p. pilsbryi HB07
         |           `--S. p. evolva Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ plebeia Maynard 1920 [=S. plebea, S. plebia] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ porcina Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ proavita Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ procliva Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ profunda Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ prognata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ progressa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ primordia Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ pulla Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ pusilla Marnard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ ralla Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ rara Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ recessa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1919 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ rediviva Maynard 1913 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ regula Maynard 1894 [=S. regular] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ reliqua Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 [=S. relequa] HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ restricta Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ ritchiei Maynard 1894 [=Strophia ritchei (l. c.), Strophiops ritchiei] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ rosacea Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ rubiginosa Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ rufula Maynard 1924 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ sampsoni Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         C. scalariforme (Maynard 1919) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |           |--C. s. scalariforme HB07
         |           `--C. ‘asperum’ processum (Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ scripta Maynard 1896 HB07
         |           |--S. s. scripta HB07
         |           `--S. s. obliterata Maynard 1896 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ scutata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ semipolita Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ similaria Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ stroutii Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ stupida Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ sylvatica Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ tenucostata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |         C. thayeri (Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921) [=Strophiops thayeri] HB07
         |         ‘Strophia’ thorndikei Maynard 1894 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ transitoria Maynard 1913 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ transmutata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 [=S. transimutata] HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ travellii Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 [=S. travelii] HB07
         |         C. uniforme (Maynard 1913) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops valida’ Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 non Cerion columna var. valida Pilsbry & Vanatta 1895 HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ variata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1919 HB07
         |         C. varium (Bonnet 1864) [incl. Strophia curtissii Maynard 1894] HB07
         |           |--C. v. varium HB07
         |           `--‘Strophia curtissii’ nivia Maynard 1894 (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         ‘Strophiops’ veta Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 HB07
         |--C. (Diacerion) HB07
         |    |--C. (D.) dalli (Maynard 1889) [=Strophia dallii] HB07
         |    `--C. (D.) rubicundum (Menke 1829) (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |         |--C. r. rubicundum HB07
         |         `--C. r. viola (Maynard 1889) [=Strophia viola] HB07
         |--C. (Maynardia) HB07
         |    |--C. (M.) agassizii Dall 1894 (see below for synonymy) HB07
         |    `--C. (M.) columna [incl. C. columna var. valida Pilsbry & Vanatta 1895] HB07
         `--C. (Multistrophia Maynard 1894) HB07
              |--*Multistrophia’ eximea (Maynard 1894) [=Strophia eximea, Multicostata eximea] HB07
              `--C. (M.) marmoratum (Pfeiffer 1847) [incl. Strophia inflata Maynard 1889] HB07
                   |--C. m. marmoratum HB07
                   `--‘Strophia’ marmorata polita Maynard 1896 HB07

Nomen nudum: Strophiops longidentata Maynard 1919 HB07

Brachypodella Beck 1837 [incl. Cylindrella Pfeiffer 1840, Distaectria Cossmann 1891; Brachypodellidae, Cylindrellidae] BR05

Cerion ‘asperum’ processum (Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920) [=Strophiops processa; incl. S. intentata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920] HB07

Cerion exiguum (Maynard 1913) [=Strophiops exigua; incl. S. angustocostata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, S. praedivina Maynard 1913, S. predivina] HB07

Cerion glans (Küster 1844) [incl. Strophiops acceptoria Maynard 1913, Strophiops affinis Maynard 1913, Strophia neglecta agava Maynard 1894, Strophiops agava, Strophiops agavaneglecta Maynard 1913, Strophiops albata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921 non Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, Strophia albea Maynard 1894, Strophiops albea, Strophiops angustalabra Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, Strophiops argentia Maynard 1913, Strophiops argentea, Strophiops argntea (l. c.), Strophiops caerulea Maynard & Clapp 1915, Strophia carlotta Maynard 1894, Strophiops cinereavaria Maynard 1913, Strophiops cinereavara, Strophia coryi Maynard 1894, Cerion coryi, Strophiops coryi, Strophiops crassalabra Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, Strophiops crassilabra, Strophiops crassamarga Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1924, Strophiops devereuxi Maynard & Clapp 1915, S. deveruaxi (l. c.), S. deveruxi (l. c.), Strophiops hesternia Maynard & Clapp 1915, Strophiops larga Maynard 1913, Strophiops livida Maynard 1924, Strophiops morula Maynard & Clapp 1915, Strophiops multa Maynard 1913, Strophiops oberholseri Maynard 1913, Strophiops obliterata Maynard 1913 non Strophia scripta obliterata Maynard 1896, Strophiops palidula Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, Strophiops primigenia Maynard 1913, Strophiops prisca Maynard & Clapp 1915, Strophiops reincarnata Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, Strophia cinerea robusta Maynard 1894, Strophiops salinaria Maynard 1913, Strophiops santesoni Maynard 1920, Strophiops saxitina Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, Strophiops sparsa Maynard 1924, Strophiops sula Maynard & Clapp 1915, Strophiops territa Maynard 1920, Strophiops thompsoni Maynard & Clapp 1915, Strophia cinerea tracta Maynard 1894, Strophiops ultima Maynard 1913, Strophiops vagabunda Maynard 1925, Strophiops vetusta Maynard 1913] HB07

Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse 1869) [incl. S. clara Maynard 1924, S. delicata Maynard 1913, S. eratica Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, S. gracila Maynard 1924, S. macularia Maynard 1913, S. minima Maynard 1924, S. montana Maynard 1924, S. phoenecia Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, S. phoenicia, S. purpurea Maynard 1913, S. purpura, S. repetita Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920, S. rufimaculata Maynard 1913, S. tenui Maynard & Clapp 1915, S. varianivia Maynard 1913, S. variapurpurea Maynard 1913, S. variathorndikei Maynard 1913] HB07

Cerion hyattii (Maynard 1913) [=Strophiops hyattii; incl. S. rufina Maynard 1913, S. tabida Maynard 1913] HB07

Cerion laeve (Plate 1907) [incl. Strophiops clappii Maynard 1913, S. ornatula Maynard 1913, S. ornatulaclappii Maynard 1913] HB07

Cerion lentiginosum (Maynard 1889) [=Strophia lentiginosa; incl. S. alba Maynard 1889, S. brownei Maynard 1889] HB07

Cerion pannosum (Maynard 1889) [=Strophia pannosa; incl. S. acuta Maynard 1889, S. festiva Maynard 1889, S. fusca Maynard 1889, S. glaber Maynard 1889, S. intermedia Maynard 1889, S. levigata Maynard 1889, S. lineota Maynard 1889, S. nitela Maynard 1889, S. parva Maynard 1889, S. perplexa Maynard 1889, S. picta Maynard 1889] HB07

Cerion scalariforme (Maynard 1919) [=Strophiops scalariformis; incl. S. aspera Maynard 1920, Cerion asperum] HB07

Cerion uniforme (Maynard 1913) [=Strophiops uniformis; incl. S. concina Maynard 1924, S. praedicta Maynard & Clapp 1915, S. praedivinauniversa Maynard 1913, S. pygmea Maynard 1924, S. transitoria Maynard 1913, S. universa Maynard 1913, Cerion universum] HB07

Cerion (Diacerion) rubicundum (Menke 1829) [incl. S. cylindrica Maynard 1896, Strophia ianthina Maynard 1889, S. orbicularia Maynard 1889, S. palida Maynard 1889, S. pallida] HB07

Cerion (Maynardia) agassizii Dall 1894 [=Strophiops rosea Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921; incl. S. ajax Maynard 1924, S. antiqua Maynard 1913, S. avita Maynard 1913, S. flacida Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921, S. gigantea Mayanrd & Clapp in Maynard 1921 non Strophia grayi gigantea Maynard 1894, S. muralia Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1921] HB07

‘Strophia curtissii’ nivia Maynard 1894 [=Strophia curtissii nivea, Strophiops nivia Maynard 1913] HB07

‘Strophiops’ accuminator Maynard & Clapp in Maynard 1920 [=S. accumulata, S. acuminata, S. acuminator] HB07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66] Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440-445.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[HB07] Harasewych, M. G., A. J. Baldinger, Y. Villacampa & P. Greenhall. 2007. The Cerion (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Cerionidae) taxa of Charles Johnson Maynard and their type specimens. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 158 (7): 367-528.

Herbert, D. G., & A. Mitchell. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic land snail genus Prestonella: the missing African element in the Gondwanan superfamily Orthalicoidea (Mollusca: Stylommatophora). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 96 (1): 203-221.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Terrestrial gastropods of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 21-24.