Female of Oithona similis carrying eggs, from here.

Belongs within: Copepoda.
Contains: Polyarthra, Oligoarthra, Poecilostomatoida, Siphonostomatoida, Hemicyclopinidae, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinidae, Chordeumiidae.

The Podoplea is a major clade containing all the copepods except the Platycopioida and Calanoida. It is characterised by the placement of a mobile joint between the fifth and segments of the trunk, rather than between the sixth and seventh segments as in the other groups (Ax 2000).

<==Podoplea [Notodelphyoida] MD01
    |--Misophrioida HD03
    |    |  i. s.: Arcticomisophria bathylaptevensis Martínez Arbisu & Seifried 1996 S03
    |    |         Misophriella schminkei Martínez Arbizu & Jaume 1999 S03
    |    |         Misophriopsis australis Martínez Arbizu & Jaume 1999 S03
    |    |         Expansophria FBI01
    |    |           |--E. apoda FBI01
    |    |           `--E. galapagensis FBI01
    |    |--Misophriidae FBI01
    |    |--Palpophriidae FBI01
    |    `--Speleophria EHH05 [Speleophriidae FBI01]
    `--+--Mormonillidae MD01 [Mormonilloida HD03]
       |--Harpacticoida HD03
       |    |  i. s.: Microstella norvegica K-M02
       |    |         Paramphiascopsis S03
       |    |         Paramorariopsis anae Brancelj 1991 B01
       |    |         Pseudomoraria triglavensis (Brancelj 1994) B01
       |    |         Ambunguipedidae MD01
       |    |         Hamondiidae MD01
       |    |--Polyarthra S03
       |    `--Oligoarthra S03
       |--+--Poecilostomatoida HD03
       |  `--+--Thaumatopsyllidae [Thaumatopsylloida, Thespesiopsyllidae] HD03
       |     |    |--Orientopsyllus investigatoris Sewell 1949 HD03
       |     |    |--Australopsyllus fallax McKinnon 1994 HD03
       |     |    |--Thaumatopsyllus Sars 1913 [=Thespesiopsyllus Wilson 1924 (nom. van.)] HD03
       |     |    |    `--T. paradoxus Sars 1913 [=Thespesiopsyllus paradoxus] HD03
       |     |    `--Caribeopsyllus HD03
       |     |         |--C. amphipodiae Ho, Dojiri et al. 2003 HD03
       |     |         `--C. chawayi Suárez-Morales & Castellanos 1998 HD03
       |     `--+--Siphonostomatoida HD03
       |        `--Monstrilla Dana 1848 N44 [Monstrillidae, Monstrilloida HD03]
       |             |--M. canadensis McMurrich 1917 N44
       |             |--M. conjunctiva Giesbrecht 1902 N44
       |             |--M. intermedia Aurivillius 1898 N44
       |             |--M. longispinosa Bourne 1890 N44
       |             |--M. mixta Scott 1914 N44
       |             |--M. ostroumowi Karaviev 1895 N44
       |             |--M. serricornis B26
       |             `--M. wandelii Stephensen 1913 N44
       `--+--Gelyella Rouch & Lescher-Moutoué 1977 R86 [Gelyellidae, Gelyelloida HD03]
          |    `--G. droguei Rouch & Lescher-Moutoué 1977 R86
          `--Cyclopoida [Gnathostoma] HD03
               |  i. s.: Ginesia Jaume & Boxshall 1997 MA01b
               |           `--G. longicaudata Jaume & Boxshall 1997 MA01b
               |         Smirnovipina Martínez Arbizu 1997 MA01b
               |           `--S. barentsiana (Smirnov 1935) MA01b
               |         Troglocyclops Rocha & Iliffe 1994 MA01b
               |--Hemicyclopinidae MA01b
               |--Cyclopidae S-MR03
               |--Cyclopinidae H86
               |--Chordeumiidae BO01
               |--Mantra Leigh-Sharpe 1934 MA01a [Mantridae MD01]
               |--Buproridae MD01
               |--Schizoproctidae [Botrylophyllidae] MD01
               |--Archinotodelphys Lang 1949 MA01a [Archinotodelphyidae MD01]
               |--Fratiidae MD01
               |--Lernaeidae MD01
               |--Ozmanidae MD01
               |--Speleoithonidae MD01
               |--Cucumaricola B88 [Cucumaricolidae BO01]
               |    `--C. notabilis Paterson 1958 B88
               |--Enterognathus BK77 [Ascidicolidae BO01, Enterognathinae]
               |    `--E. comatulae BK77
               |--Notodelphyidae H01
               |    |--Pachypygus gibber H01, R96
               |    `--Doropygus BK77 [Doropygidae MD01]
               |         `--D. pulex BK77
               |--Oithona Baird 1843 [incl. Oithonina Sars 1913; Oithonidae] N44
               |    |--O. atlantica B26
               |    |--O. attenuata Farran 1913 N44
               |    |--O. nana Giesbrecht 1892 [=*Oithonina nana] N44
               |    |--O. plumifera B26
               |    `--O. similis K-MC02
               |--Psammocyclopinidae MA01a
               |    |--Psammocyclopina Wells 1967 MA01a
               |    |    |--*P. hindleyi Wells 1967 MA01a
               |    |    `--P. georgei Martínez Arbizu 2001 MA01a
               |    `--Metacyclopina Lindberg 1953 MA01a
               |         |--‘Cyclopina’ agilis Wilson 1932 MA01a
               |         |--M. brevisetosa Herbst 1975 MA01a
               |         |--M. harpacticoidea (Klie 1949) MA01a
               |         |--M. improvisa Herbst & Zo 1981 MA01a
               |         `--M. roscoffensis Bozic 1953 MA01a
               `--Abrsidae KT09

*Type species of generic name indicated


Ax, P. 2000. Muticellular Animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[B88] Boxshall, G. A. 1988. A review of the copepod endoparasites of brittle stars. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology series 54 (6): 261-270.

[BO01] Boxshall, G. A., & S. Ohtsuka. 2001. Two new families of copepods (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on echinoderms. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 96-105.

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513-524.

[EHH05] Eberhard, S. M., S. A. Halse & W. F. Humphreys. 2005. Stygofauna in the Pilbara region, north-west Western Australia: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 167-176.

[FBI01] Fosshagen, A., G. A. Boxshall & T. M. Iliffe. 2001. The Epacteriscidae, a cave-living family of calanoid copepods. Sarsia 86: 245-318.

[H86] Herbst, H.-V. 1986. Copepoda: Cyclopoida aus dem meeres- und brackwasser-interstitial. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 313-320. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HD03] Ho, J.-S., M. Dojiri, G. Hendler & G. B. Deets. 2003. A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) symbiotic with a brittle star from California, U.S.A., and designation of a new order Thaumatopsylloida. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 582-594.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: A case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106-156.

[KT09] Karanovic, T. & D. Tang. 2009. A new species of the copepod genus Australoeucyclops (Crustacea: Cyclopoida: Eucyclopinae) from Western Australia shows the role of aridity in habitat shift and colonisation of ground water. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 247-263.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Sculpins. Family Cottidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 346-357. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-MC02] Klein-MacPhee, G., & B. B. Collette. 2002. Scorpionfishes. Family Scorpaenidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 331-338. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[MA01a] Martínez Arbizu, P. 2001a. Psammocyclopinidae fam. n., a new monophyletic group of marine Cyclopoida (Copepoda, Crustacea), with the description of Psammocyclopina georgei sp. n. from the Magellan region. Revista Bras. Zool. 18 (4): 1325-1339.

[MA01b] Martínez Arbizu, P. 2001b. Hemicyclopinidae n. fam., a new monophyletic group of marine cyclopinid Cyclopoida, with description of one new genus and two new species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 81 (1-2): 37-54.

[N44] Nicholls, A. G. 1944. Littoral Copepoda from South Australia. (II) Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphyoida, Monstrilloida and Caligoida. Records of the South Australian Museum 8 (1): 1-62.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3-35.

[R86] Rouch, R. 1986. Copepoda: Les harpacticoïdes souterrains des eaux douces continentales. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 321-355. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S03] Seifried, S. 2003. Phylogeny of Harpacticoida (Copepoda): Revision of “Maxillipedasphalea” and Exanechentera. Cuvillier Verlag: Göttingen.

[S-MR03] Suárez-Morales, E., & J. W. Reid. 2003. An updated checklist of the continental copepod fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with notes on its regional associations. Crustaceana 76 (8): 977-991.

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