Crangonyctoidea

Neoniphargus spenceri, from here.


Belongs within: Amphipoda.
Contains: Crangonyx, Stygobromus, Synurella, Niphargus, Bogidiella.

The Crangonyctoidea are a group of freshwater amphipods. Many families in the group contain species living in hypogean (underground, i.e. caves or groundwater) habitats, and some are entirely hypogean.

Characters (from Bousfield 1977 [shared features of 'Crangonyctoidea', 'Niphargoidea', 'Bogidielloidea']): Body non-carinate; urosome armature weak or urosome setose; head non-rostrate; eye small or absent; antennae with I the longer, peduncular segment II not elongate; acessory flagellum variable, usually short. Outer plate of maxilla I with 6-8 apical spine-teeth; maxilliped palp dactylate. Pleopods slender or reduced (particularly rami). Uropod III variably biramous (or rami lacking), spinose and/or setose. Coxal gills simple or lobate, may be pedunculate, may be lacking on coxa VII; sternal gills may be on peraeon segments II-VII, or absent.

<==Crangonyctoidea [Bogidielloidea]
    |  i. s.: Austrocrangonyx Barnard & Barnard 1983 W86
    |           `--A. antipodeus (Smith 1909) W86
    |--Phreatogammarus Stebbing 1906 W86 [Phreatogammaridae MD01]
    |    `--*P. fragilis (Chilton 1882) [=Gammarus fragilis] B77
    |--Artesia Holsinger 1980 CS86 [Artesiidae MD01]
    |    `--A. subterranea Holsinger 1980 CS86
    |--Paracrangonyx Stebbing 1899 CS86 [Paracrangonyctidae MD01]
    |    `--*P. compactus (Chilton 1882) [=Crangonyx compactus] B77
    |--Allocrangonyx Schellenberg 1936 H86 [Allocrangonyctidae MD01]
    |    |--*A. pellucidus (Mackin 1935) [=Niphargus pellucidus] B77
    |    `--A. hubrichti Holsinger 1971 H86
    |--Sternophysinx Holsinger & Straskraba 1973 W86 [Sternophysingidae MD01]
    |    |--*S. robertsi (Methuen 1911) B77, W86 [=Eucrangonyx robertsi B77]
    |    |--S. alca Griffiths 1981 W86
    |    `--S. filaris Holsinger & Straskraba 1973 W86
    |--Pseudocrangonyx Akatsuka & Komai 1922 H86 [incl. Niphargonyx Derzhavin 1927 H86; Pseudocrangonyctidae MD01]
    |    |--*P. yezonis Akatuska & Komai 1922 B77
    |    |--P. asiaticus Ueno 1934 H86
    |    |--P. bohaensis (Derzhavin 1927) [=*Niphargonyx bohaensis] H86
    |    |--P. camtschaticus Birstein 1955 H86
    |    |--P. coreanus Ueno 1966 H86
    |    |--P. kyotonis Akatsuka & Komai 1922 H86
    |    |--P. levanidovi Birstein 1955 H86
    |    |--P. manchuricus Oguro 1938 H86
    |    `--P. shikokunis Akatsuka & Komai 1922 H86
    |--Neoniphargidae KR86
    |    |--Wesniphargus Williams & Barnard 1988 FJK08
    |    |--Yulia Williams & Barnard 1988 FJK08
    |    |--Tasniphargus Williams & Barnard 1988 FJK08
    |    `--Neoniphargus Stebbing 1899 FJK08
    |         |--*N. thomsoni Stebbing 1899 B77
    |         |--N. exiguus N24
    |         |--N. fultoni N24
    |         |--N. moniezii N24
    |         |--N. montanus (Thomson 1883) [=Niphargus montanus] N24
    |         |--N. obrieni Nicholls 1927 W86
    |         |--N. spenceri N24
    |         `--N. yuli N24
    |--Perthia Straškraba 1964 B77 [Perthiidae MD01]
    |    |--*P. branchialis (Nicholls 1924) [=Neoniphargus branchialis] B77
    |    `--P. acutitelson TJ06
    |--Crangonyctidae KR86
    |    |--Crangonyx H86
    |    |--Stygobromus H86
    |    |--Synurella H86
    |    |--Lyurella Derzhavin 1939 H86, B77
    |    |    `--*L. hyrcana Derzhavin 1939 B77
    |    |--Palaeogammarus Zaddach 1864 H86, B77
    |    |    `--*P. sambiensis Zaddach 1864 B77
    |    |--Procrangonyx Schellenberg 1934 [=Eocrangonyx] H86
    |    |    `--*P. japonicus (Ueno 1930) [=Eucrangonyx japonicus, *Eocrangonyx japonicus] H86
    |    |--Stygonectes Hay 1902 B77
    |    |    `--*S. flagellatus Benedict 1896 B77
    |    `--Bactrurus Hay 1903 H86
    |         |--*B. mucronatus (Forbes 1876) B77, H86 [=Eucrangonyx mucronatus B77]
    |         |--B. brachycaudus Hubricht & Mackin 1940 H86
    |         `--B. hubrichti Shoemaker 1945 H86
    |--Niphargoidea B77
    |    |--Austroniphargus Monod 1925 B77
    |    |    |--*A. bryophilus (Monod 1925) [=Niphargopsis bryophilus] B77
    |    |    |--A. petiti W86
    |    |    `--A. starmuehlneri Ruffo 1960 B77
    |    `--Niphargidae KR86
    |         |--Niphargus KR86
    |         |--Niphargopsis Chevreux 1922 KR86
    |         |    `--*N. casparyi (Pratz 1866) [=Niphargus casparyi] B77
    |         |--Microniphargus Schellenberg 1934 KR86
    |         |    `--*M. leruthi Schellenberg 1934 B77
    |         |--Pontoniphargus Dancau 1970 KR86
    |         |    `--*P. racovitzai Dancau 1970 B77
    |         |--Carinurella Sket 1971 KR86
    |         |    `--*C. paradoxa (Sket 1964) [=Niphargus paradoxa] B77
    |         |--Niphargobates Sket 1981 KR86
    |         |    `--N. orophobata Sket 1981 KR86
    |         |--Haploginglymus Mateus & Mateus 1958 KR86
    |         |    |--H. bragai Mateus & Mateus 1958 KR96
    |         |    `--H. lobatus Stock 1980 KR86
    |         `--Niphargellus Schellenberg 1938 KR86
    |              |--*N. arndti (Schellenberg 1933) B77, KR86 [=Niphargus arndti B77]
    |              |--N. glenniei (Spooner 1952) KR86
    |              `--N. nolli Schellenberg 1938 KR86
    |--Paramelitidae KR86
    |    |  i. s.: Paramelita Schellenberg 1926 W86
    |    |           |--*P. capensis (Barnard 1916) [=Gammarus capensis] B77
    |    |           `--P. barnardi Thurston 1973 W86
    |    |         Austrogammarus Barnard & Karaman 1983 FJK08
    |    |         Antipodeus Williams & Barnard 1988 FJK08
    |    |         Hurleya Straškraba 1966 FJK08
    |    |           `--*H. kalamundae Straškraba 1966 B77
    |    |         ‘Gammarus’ australis Sayce 1901 B77
    |    |         Uroctena Nicholls 1926 B77
    |    |           |--*U. affinis Nicholls 1926 N26a
    |    |           |--U. setosa Nicholls 1926 N26a
    |    |           |--U. westralis (Chilton 1925) W86 [=Neoniphargus westralis N26a]
    |    |           `--U. yellandi Nicholls 1926 N26b
    |    |         Falklandella Schellenberg 1931 B77
    |    |           `--*F. obtusa Schellenberg 1931 B77
    |    |--Protocrangonyx Nicholls 1926 FJK08
    |    |    `--*P. fontinalis Nicholls 1926 B66
    |    `--+--Molina pleobranchos Bradbury 2000 FJK08
    |       |--Pilbarus Bradbury & Williams 1997 FJK08
    |       |    `--P. millsi Bradbury & Williams 1997 FJK08
    |       |--Kruptus Finston, Johnson & Knott 2008 FJK08
    |       |    `--*K. linnaei Finston, Johnson & Knott 2008 FJK08
    |       `--Chydaekata Bradbury 2000 FJK08
    |            |--C. acuminata Bradbury 2000 FJK08
    |            |--C. brachybasis Bradbury 2000 FJK08
    |            |--C. nudula Bradbury 2000 FJK08
    |            `--C. scopula Bradbury 2000 FJK08
    `--Bogidiellidae W86
         |--Bogidiella CS86
         |--Bogidomma EHH05
         |--Spelaeogammarus da Silva Brum 1973 CS86
         |    `--*S. bahiensis da Silva Brum 1973 B77
         |--Dussartiella Ruffo 1979 CS86
         |    `--D. madegassa Ruffo 1979 CS86
         |--Actogidiella Stock 1981 CS86
         |    `--A. cultrifera Stock 1981 CS86
         |--Eobogidiella Karaman 1982 CS86
         |    `--E. purmamarcensis (Grosso & Ringuelet 1969) CS86
         |--Kerguelenicola Ruffo 1974 CS86
         |    `--*K. macer (Ruffo 1970) [=Kerguelenella macra] B77
         |--Marinobogidiella Karaman 1982 CS86
         |    `--M. tyrrhenica (Schiecke 1973) CS86
         |--Parabogidiella Holsinger 1980 CS86
         |    `--P. americana Holsinger 1980 CS86
         |--Afridiella Karaman & Barnard 1979 [incl. Somagidiella Stock 1981] CS86
         |    |--A. pectinicauda Ruffo 1982 CS86
         |    `--A. somala (Ruffo 1970) CS86
         |--Bollegidia Ruffo 1974 CS86
         |    |--*B. capensis Ruffo 1974 B77
         |    `--B. sootai Coineau & Rao 1972 CS86
         |--Marigidiella Stock 1981 CS86
         |    |--M. brasiliensis (Siewing 1953) CS86
         |    `--M. crassipes Stock 1981 CS86
         `--Pseudingolfiella Noodt 1965 CS86
              |--*P. chilensis (Noodt 1959) [=Ingolfiella chilensis] B77
              `--P. soyeri Coineau 1977 CS86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B77] Bousfield, E. L. 1977. A new look at the systematics of gammaroidean amphipods of the world. Crustaceana Suppl. 4: 282-316.

[CS86] Coineau, N., & J. H. Stock. 1986. Amphipoda: Bogidiellidae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 574-580. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[EHH05] Eberhard, S. M., S. A. Halse & W. F. Humphreys. 2005. Stygofauna in the Pilbara region, north-west Western Australia: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 167-176.

[FJK08] Finston, T. L., M. S. Johnson & B. Knott. 2008. A new genus and species of stygobitic paramelitid amphipod from the Pilbara, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 395-410.

[H86] Holsinger, J. R. 1986. Holarctic crangonyctid amphipods. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 535-549. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KR86] Karaman, G. S., & S. Ruffo. 1986. Amphipoda: Niphargus-group (Niphargidae sensu Bousfield, 1982). In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 514-534. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[N24] Nicholls, G. E. 1924. Neoniphargus branchialis, a new freshwater amphipod from south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 10 (14): 105-111.

[N26a] Nicholls, G. E. 1926a. Description of a new genus and two new species of blind freshwater amphipods from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 12 (12): 105-111.

[N26b] Nicholls, G. E. 1926b. Description of a new species of Uroctena from south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 12 (13): 113-116.

[TJ06] Thomas, E. J., & J. John. 2006. Diatoms and macroinvertebrates as biomonitors of mine-lakes in Collie, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 109-117.

[W86] Williams, W. D. 1986. Amphipoda on land-masses derived from Gondwana. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 553-559. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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