Gammaroidea

Specimen of Gammaracanthus lacustris, from here.


Belongs within: Amphipoda.
Contains: Pontogammaridae, Micruropidae, Gammaridae, Acanthogammaridae, Echinogammarus.

The Gammaroidea are a large group of mostly freshwater (though some are marine) amphipods. The gammaroids as listed below were united by Bousfield (1977); however, his description of the superfamily as 'plesiomorphic' suggests that he regarded this group as potentially paraphyletic with regard to the other 'gammaroid' superfamilies (Melitoidea, Crangonyctoidea and Melphidippoidea), though he did not conduct a formal phylogenetic analysis. Among the Gammaroidea are the extensive radiation of amphipods found in Lake Baikal.

Characters (from Bousfield 1977): Both antennae (especially peduncle of antenna II) strongly developed, segment 2 of antenna I not elongate, acessory flagellum prominent (rarely absent); head with inferior antennal sinus deeply emarginate; eye well developed, basically reniform; body often carinate and/or processiferous, and/or rostrum moderately to well developed; urosome segments with well developed dorsal groups of spines and setae; sexual dimorphism usually strongly expressed in body size, and in characters of antennae, gnathopods, peraeopods and uropod III, but not in a specialised male instar; calceoli of antenna II cup- or plate-shaped. Mandibular palp strongly 3-segmented, terminal segment strong, usually with D-setae; lower lip with inner lobes lacking or weakly developed; maxilla I with inner plate large, strongly setose, outer plate with 11-9 (rarely fewer) apical spine-teeth; maxilla II with plates strongly setose; maxilliped with large, marginally spinose inner plates, palp strong, dactylate; coxal plates I-IV deep, contiguous (overlapping); coxae V-VII with anterior lobe usually deeper than posterior lobe. Gnathopods I and II strongly subchelate, subequal, II usually larger; peraeopods III larger than IV, may be sexually dimorphic in armature (not form); peraeopods V-VII with basis usually expanded, VII longest; pleopods with well developed rami, subequal; epimeral plates subquadrate or acute behind; peduncle of uropod I with basofacial spine; uropod III with rami usually subequal, spinose and setose (natatory), terminal segment of outer ramus present; telson basically bilobed, spinose and setose marginally and apically, apices rounded. Coxal gill of peraeon VII usually present; accessory (sternal) gills absent; brood lamellae large (or distally expanded), marginally with strong simple setae.

<==Gammaroidea B77
    |  i. s.: Pontogammaridae B77
    |         Cardiophilus Sars 1896 B77
    |           `--*C. baeri Sars 1896 B77
    |         Behningiella Derzhavin 1948 B77
    |           `--*B. brachypus Derzhavin 1948 B77
    |         Zernovia Derzhavin 1948 B77
    |           `--*Z. volgensis Derzhavin 1948 B77
    |         Iphigenella Sars 1896 B77
    |           `--*I. acanthopoda Sars 1896 B77
    |         Pachyschesis Bazikalova 1945 B77 [Pachyschesidae MD01]
    |           `--*P. branchialis (Dyb. 1874) [=Gammarus branchialis] B77
    |         Mesogammarus Tzvetkova 1965 [Mesogammaridae] B77
    |           `--*M. melitoides Tzvetkova 1965 B77
    |         Anisogammaridae B77
    |           |--Eogammarus Birstein 1933 B77
    |           |    `--*E. locustoides (Brandt 1851) [=Gammarus locustoides] B77
    |           |--Spinulogammarus Tzvetkova 1972 B77
    |           |    `--*S. ochotensis (Brandt 1851) [=Gammarus ochotensis] B88
    |           `--Anisogammarus Derzhavin 1927 B77
    |                |--*A. pugettensis Dana 1853-1855 B77
    |                `--A. annandalei (Tattersall 1922) [=Eogammarus annandalei] S86
    |         Micruropidae MD01
    |         Typhlogammaridae MD01
    |           |--Accubogammarus Karaman 1974 B77
    |           |    `--*A. algor (Karaman 1973) [=Typhlogammarus algor] B77
    |           |--Metohia Absolon 1927 B77
    |           |    `--*M. carinata Absolon 1927 B77
    |           |--Zenkevitchia Birstein 1940 B77
    |           |    `--*Z. admirabilis Birstein 1940 B77
    |           |--Anopogammarus Derzhavin 1939 B77
    |           |    |--*A. birsteini Derzhavin 1939 B77
    |           |    `--‘Zenkevitchia’ revasi Birstein & Ljovuschkin 1970 S86
    |           `--Typhlogammarus Schäferna 1906 B77
    |                `--*T. mrazeki Schäferna 1906 B77
    |                     |--T. m. mrazeki S86
    |                     `--T. m. heteropalpus Karaman 1972 S86
    |--Gammaracanthus Bate 1862 VVP01, B77 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: *G. loricatus (Sabine 1821) [=Gammarus loricatus] B77
    |    |--G. lacustris Sars 1867 [=Relictacanthus lacustris; incl. G. relictus Sars 1895] VVP01
    |    `--+--G. aestuariorum Lomakina in Guryanova 1951 [incl. G. loricatus var. ostiorum] VVP01
    |       `--G. caspius Sars 1896 VVP01
    `--+--Gammaridae VVP01
       `--+--Acanthogammaridae VVP01
          `--+--Echinogammarus B77
             |--Pectenogammarus Reid 1940 B77
             |    `--P. planicrurus Reid 1940 B77
             |--Comatogammarus Stock 1971 B77
             |    `--C. ferghanensis (Martynov & Behning 1948) [=Sarothrogammarus ferghanensis] B77
             |--Longigammarus Karaman 1969 B77
             |    `--L. bruni (Karaman 1969) [=Neogammarus bruni] B77
             |--Eulimnogammarus Bazikalova 1945 VVP01, B77 [incl. Philolimnogammarus Bazikalova 1945 B77]
             |    |--E. cyaneus VVP01
             |    `--E. obtusatus [=Gammarus obtusatus] B77
             |--Lobogammarus Bazikalova 1945 B77
             |    |--*L. latus Bazikalova 1945 B77
             |    `--L. andrussowi (Sars 1896) [=Gammarus andrussowi] B77
             |--Sarothrogammarus Martynov 1935 B77
             |    |--*S. asiaticus Marynov 1935 B77
             |    |--S. afghanus (Ruffo 1959) S86
             |    `--S. guernei (Chevreux 1889) S86
             |--Neogammarus Ruffo 1967 B77
             |    |--*N. festae (Ruffo 1937) B77, S86 [=Gammarus festae B77]
             |    |--N. adriaticus Karaman 1973 S86
             |    `--N. nudus Stock 1971 S86
             |--Chaetogammarus Martynov 1925 B77
             |    |--*C. pauxillus (Sars 1896) [=Gammarus pauxillus] B77
             |    |--C. marinus (Leach 1815) [=Gammarus marinus] B77
             |    |--C. shadini (Birstein 1948) S86
             |    `--C. stoerensis (Reid 1938) [=Gammarus stoerensis] B77
             `--Rhipidogammarus Stock 1971 B77
                  |--*R. rhipidiophorus (Catta 1878) [=Gammarus rhipidiophorus] B77
                  |--R. karamani Stock 1972 S86
                  |--R. triumvir Notenboom 1985 S86
                  `--R. variicauda Stock 1978 S86

Gammaracanthus Bate 1862 VVP01, B77 [incl. Pseudacanthus VVP01, Relictacanthus Bousfield 1989 VVP01; Gammaracanthidae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B77] Bousfield, E. L. 1977. A new look at the systematics of gammaroidean amphipods of the world. Crustaceana Suppl. 4: 282-316.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[S86] Stock, J. H. 1986. Amphipoda: Gammarid grouping (Gammaridae s. str. sensu Bousfield). In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 497-503. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[VVP01] Väinölä, R., J. K. Vainio & J. U. Palo. 2001. Phylogeography of “glacial relict” Gammaracanthus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from boreal lakes and the Caspian and White Seas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58: 2247-2257.

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