Hippolyte leptocerus, copyright Florence Gully.

Belongs within: Caridea.
Contains: Synalpheus, Alpheus.

The Alpheoidea contains the snapping shrimps (Alpheidae) and cleaner shrimps (Hippolytidae). The first pair of pereiopods in members of this group is well developed; in the snapping shrimps one chela is enlarged and used to produce a loud cracking noise. The Alpheidae also have the eyes at least partially hidden by the front margin of the carapace. In the Hippolytidae, the eyes are exposed as in other shrimp groups; members of this family have the carpus of pereiopod 2 subdivided into a number of short segments.

Characters (from Chace 1992): First pair of pereiopods distinctly chelate; first maxilliped with exopod far removed from endite; second maxilla with endite well developed.

    |--Ogyrides Stebbing 1914 [=Ogyris Stimpson 1860 (preoc.); Ogyridae, Ogyrididae] MD01
    |--Bythocarididae MD01
    |    |--Bythocaris MD01
    |    |--Cryptocheles MD01
    |    `--Bathyhippolyte MD01
    |--Barbouriidae MD01
    |    |--Barbouria Rathbun 1912 MD01, H86
    |    |    `--B. cubensis (von Martens 1872) H86
    |    |--Janicea Manning & Hart 1984 MD01, H86
    |    |    `--J. antiguensis (Chace 1972) H86
    |    `--Parhippolyte Borradaile 1899 MD01, H86
    |         `--P. uveae Borradaile 1899 H86
    |--Alpheidae D84
    |    |--Synalpheus D84
    |    |--Salmoneus ortmanni M85
    |    |--Alpheopsis trispinosa (Stimpson 1861) MG-H11
    |    |--Alpheus D84
    |    |--Potamalpheops Powell 1979 H86
    |    |    `--P. stygicola (Hobbs 1973) [=Alpheopsis stygicola] H86
    |    |--Automate H86
    |    |    |--A. branchialis Holthuis & Gottlieb 1958 KK03
    |    |    `--A. dolichognatha de Man 1888 H86
    |    `--Metabetaeus Borradaile 1899 H86
    |         |--M. lohena Banner & Banner 1960 H86
    |         `--M. minutus (Whitelegge 1897) H86
    `--Hippolytidae [Alopidae] MD01
         |--Alope spinifrons (Milne Edwards 1837) H86
         |--Latreutes fucorum [incl. L. ensiferus] M85
         |--Chorismus antarcticus (Pfeffer 1887) FZA07
         |--Caridion MD01
         |--Thor amboinensis de Man 1888 TSH09
         |--Merhippolyte chacei Kensley, Tanter & Griffin 1987 MG-H11
         |--Tozeuma tomentosum (Baker 1904) MG-H11
         |--Nauticaris Bate 1888 [Nauticarididae] B04
         |    `--N. marionis Bate 1888 FZA07
         |--Somersiella Hart & Manning 1981 H86
         |    `--S. sterreri Hart & Manning 1981 H86
         |--Calliasmata Holthuis 1973 H86
         |    |--C. pholidota Holthuis 1973 H86
         |    `--C. rimolii Chace 1975 H86
         |--Saron TSH09
         |    |--S. marmoratus (Oliver 1811) TSH09
         |    `--S. neglectus de Man 1902 TSH09
         |--Lebbeus MG-H11
         |    |--L. clarehannah McCallum & Poore 2010 MG-H11
         |    `--L. polaris (Sabine 1824) FZA07
         |--Spirontocaris M85
         |    |--S. lilljeborgii M85
         |    |--S. phippsii M85
         |    `--S. spinus M85
         |--Lysmata MG-H11
         |    |--L. amboinensis (de Man 1888) MG-H11
         |    |--L. rathbunae M85
         |    |--L. seticaudata (Risso 1816) KK03
         |    `--L. wurdemanni M85
         |--Eualus MG-H11
         |    |--E. fabricii M85
         |    |--E. gaimardii M85
         |    |--E. macilentus (Krøyer 1841) FZA07
         |    |--E. occultus (Lebour 1936) KK03
         |    `--E. pusiolus M85
         `--Hippolyte M85
              |--H. bifidirostris HS01
              |--H. curacaoensis M85
              |--H. holthuisi Zariquiey-Alvarez 1953 KK03
              |--H. hunti BK77
              |--H. inermis Leach 1815 KK03
              |--H. leptocerus (Heller 1863) KK03
              |--H. leptometrae Ledoyer 1969 KK03
              |--H. mauritanicus Lucas 1846 E12
              |--H. pleuracanthus M85
              `--H. turgida CS77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B04] Boyko, C. B. 2004. The Bopyridae (Crustacea, Isopoda) parasites of the Stylodactylidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea). Zoosystema 26 (2): 199–210.

Chace, F. A., Jr. 1992. On the classification of the Caridea (Decapoda). Crustaceana 63 (1): 70-80.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D84] Dardeau, M. R. 1984. Synalpheus shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae). I. The Gambarelloides group, with a description of a new species. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 7 (2): 1–125.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H86] Holthuis, L. B. 1986. Decapoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 589–615. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[M85] Markham, J. C. 1985. A review of the bopyrid isopods infesting caridean shrimps in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, with special reference to those collected during the Hourglass Cruises in the Gulf of Mexico. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 7 (3): 1–156.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

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