Liomera rubra, from here.

Belongs within: Heterotremata.

The Xanthidae are a family of marine crabs found from the intertidal zone to moderately deep water. They are often brightly coloured and highly toxic, sometimes even to the touch.

Characters (from Davie 2002): Carapace hexagonal, transversely hexagonal to transversely oval, sometimes subcircular; dorsal regions (areolation) generally, but not always, well defined; surface usually ridged or granular. Frontal margin more or less bilobed. Anterolateral margins generally with two to six teeth, spines or lobes, sometimes weakly differentiated. Epistome with ridges that define efferent branchial canals absent or confined to the posterior part of the branchial cavity, not continuing on to meet the anterior buccal frame. Chelipeds with fingers pointed or spoon-tipped. Walking legs with or without at dactylo-propodal articulation formed by a rounded prolongation of propodal lateral margin sliding against and beneath a projecting button situated proximally on lateral margin of dactylus. Thoracic sternum relatively narrow. Male abdomen consisting of five movable segments with segments 3-5 fused (sutures may sometimes be more or less evident). Male genital openings coxal; female openings sternal. Male first gonopod slender, curved or sinuous, relatively simple apically, lacking complex lobes or folds; typically with long setae distally or subdistally; second gonopod short, less than 0.25× length of first.

    |--Banareia [Zalasiinae] TSH09
    |--Lybia [Polydectinae] TSH09
    |    `--L. tessellata (Latreille in Milbert 1812) TSH09
    |--Etisus Milne Edwards 1834 GT01 [Etisinae TSH09]
    |    |--*E. dentatus (Herbst 1785) [=Cancer dentatus] GT01
    |    |--E. demani Odhner 1925 TSH09
    |    |--E. electra (Herbst 1801) TSH09
    |    `--E. utilus Jacquinot in Jacquinot & Lucas 1853 TSH09
    |--Cymo [Cymoinae] TSH09
    |    |--C. andreossyi (Audouin 1826) TSH09
    |    |--C. deplanatus Milne Edwards 1873 TSH09
    |    |--C. melanodactylus Dana 1852 TSH09
    |    `--C. quadrilobatus Miers 1884 TSH09
    |--Palapedia [Kraussiinae] TSH09
    |    |--P. integra (De Haan 1835) TSH09
    |    |--P. marquesa (Serène 1972) TSH09
    |    |--P. pelsartensis (Serène 1972) MG-H11
    |    `--P. valentini Ng 2003 MG-H11
    |--Euxanthinae TSH09
    |    |--Hypocolpus abbotti (Rathbun 1894) TSH09
    |    |--Paramedaeus TSH09
    |    `--Euxanthus TSH09
    |         |--E. exsculptus (Herbst 1790) TSH09
    |         `--E. huonii (Hombron & Jacquinot 1846) TSH09
    |--Liomera [Liomerinae] TSH09
    |    |--L. cinctimana (White 1847) TSH09
    |    |--L. edwardsi Kossmann 1877 TSH09
    |    |--L. laevis (Milne Edwards 1873) TSH09
    |    |--L. monticulosa (Milne Edwards 1873) TSH09
    |    |--L. rubra (Milne Edwards 1865) TSH09
    |    |--L. rugata (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09
    |    |--L. stimpsoni (Milne Edwards 1865) TSH09
    |    `--L. tristis (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |--Zosiminae TSH09
    |    |--Atergatopsis TSH09
    |    |--Lophozozymus anaglypta (Heller 1861) TSH09
    |    |--Zozymodes cavipes (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |    |--Zosimus aeneus (Linnaeus 1758) TSH09
    |    |--Atergatis
    |    |    |--A. floridus (Linnaeus 1767) TSH09
    |    |    |--A. integerrimus (Lamarck 1801) WMJ09
    |    |    `--A. roseus (Rüppell 1830) KK03
    |    `--Platypodia TSH09
    |         |--P. eydouxi (Milne Edwards 1873) TSH09
    |         |--P. granulosa (Rüppell 1830) TSH09
    |         `--P. semigranosa (Heller 1861) TSH09
    |--Actaeinae TSH09
    |    |--Gaillardiellus orientalis (Odhner 1925) TSH09
    |    |--Psaumis cavipes (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |    |--Pseudoliomera TSH09
    |    |--Paractaea TSH09
    |    |    |--P. rufopunctata (Milne Edwards 1834) MG-H11
    |    |    `--P. sulcata (Stimpson 1860) PB06
    |    |--Actaea MG-H11
    |    |    |--A. calculosa (Milne Edwards 1834) MG-H11
    |    |    |--A. peronii (Milne Edwards 1834) MG-H11
    |    |    `--A. polyacantha (Heller 1861) TSH09
    |    `--Actaeodes TSH09
    |         |--A. consobrinus (Milne Edwards 1873) TSH09
    |         |--A. hirsutissimus (Rüppell 1830) TSH09
    |         `--A. tomentosus (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09
    |--Chlorodielinae TSH09
    |    |--Tweedieia TSH09
    |    |--Chlorodiella MG-H11
    |    |    |--C. barbata (Borradaile 1900) TSH09
    |    |    |--C. cytherea (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |    |    `--C. laevissima (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |    |--Pilodius TSH09
    |    |    |--P. areolatus (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09
    |    |    |--P. flavus Rathbun 1894 TSH09
    |    |    `--P. pilumnoides (White 1848) TSH09
    |    `--Cyclodius TSH09
    |         |--C. granulatus (Targioni-Tozzetti 1877) TSH09
    |         |--C. granulosus (De Man 1888) TSH09
    |         |--C. nitidus (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |         |--C. obscurus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1846) TSH09
    |         `--C. ungulatus (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09
    `--Xanthinae TSH09
         |--Lachnopodus subacutus (Stimpson 1858) TSH09
         |--Neoxanthias impressus (Latreille in Milbert 1812) TSH09
         |--Xantho Leach 1814 GT01
         |    |--X. granulicarpus Forest 1953 KK03
         |    |--X. pilipes Milne-Edwards 1867 KK03
         |    `--X. poressa (Olivi 1792) KK03
         |--Xanthias TSH09
         |    |--X. haswelli H15
         |    `--X. lamarcki (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09
         |--Paraxanthias TSH09
         |    |--P. notatus (Dana 1852) TSH09
         |    |--P. pachydactylus (Milne Edwards 1867) TSH09
         |    `--P. taylori [incl. Xantho spinotuberculata] B64
         `--Leptodius TSH09
              |--L. eudorus B64
              |--L. exaratus (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09
              |--L. nudipes B64
              `--L. sanguineus (Milne Edwards 1834) TSH09

Xanthidae incertae sedis:
  Eurypanopeus C02
    |--E. abbreviatus HN-F08
    `--E. depressus C02
  Calvactaea tumida Ward 1933 MG-H11
  Demania wardi Garth & Ng 1985 MG-H11
  Medaeus MG-H11
  Monodaeus MG-H11
    |--M. couchii (Couch 1851) KK03
    `--M. tuberculidens (Rathbun 1911) MG-H11
  Nanocassiope MG-H11
  Novactaea MG-H11
  Paraxanthodes MG-H11
  Hyperolissa B64
    |--Homalaspis B64
    `--Heterozius Milne Edwards 1867 B64
         `--H. rotundifrons Milne Edwards 1867 B64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B64] Bennett, E. W. 1964. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Crustacea Brachyura. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 153: 1–120.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 261–264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

Davie, P. J. F. 2002. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 19.3B. Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eucarida (Part 2). Decapoda—Anomura, Brachyura. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[GT01] Guinot, D., & M. Tavares. 2001. Une nouvelle famille de crabes du Crétacé, et la notion de Podotremata Guinot, 1977 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura). Zoosystema 23 (3): 507–546.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[HN-F08] Hirose, G. L., & M. L. Negreiros-Franzoso. 2008. Growth and juvenile development of Uca maracoani Latreille 1802-1803 in laboratory conditions (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 161–168.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PB06] Poupin, J., & J. M. Bouchard. 2006. The eastern Pacific species of the genus Calcinus Dana, 1851, with description of a new species from Clipperton Island (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae). Zoosystema 28 (2): 465–486.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153–158.

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