Hirtella rugosa, copyright Smithsonian Institution.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Chrysobalanales (or Chrysobalanaceae sensu lato) have historically been recognised as a pantropical group of trees, shrubs and lianas with simple, entire leaves and obliquely monosymmetric flowers.

    |  i. s.: Hunga H03
    |--+--Trigoniaceae XR12
    |  |    |--Humbertodendron T00
    |  |    |--Trigoniastrum XR12
    |  |    `--Trigonia Aubl. 1775 KC01
    |  `--Dichapetalaceae XR12
    |       |--Dichapetalum zenkeri XR12
    |       |--Stephanopodium T00
    |       `--Tapura ivorense CBH93
    `--+--Euphronia [Euphroniaceae] XR12
       |    `--E. guianensis XR12
       `--Chrysobalanaceae XR12
            |  i. s.: Couepia longipendula K06
            |         Parinari nonda LK14
            |         Maranthes corymbosa B00
            |--Atuna racemosa XR12, WM09
            `--+--Chrysobalanus icaco XR12
               `--+--Licania ternatensis XR12, SWK87
                  `--Hirtella XR12
                       |--H. bicornis WM09
                       `--H. rugosa SWK87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

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