Aphodiinae

European dung beetle Aphodius fimetarius, copyright James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Scarabaeoidea.
Contains: Ataenius, Saprosites, Aphodius (Podotenus).

The Aphodiinae are a cosmopolitan group of mostly relatively small, elongate scarabaeids.

Characters (from the Australian Faunal Directory): Size from 2 to 10 mm; tarsi of equal length; elytra covering abdomen, without narrow margin; abdominal spiracles located in pleural membrane, covered by elytra; midcoxae strongly oblique, separated by less than their width; scutellum present (occasionally minute to not visible); labrum concealed or only slightly exposed; hind tibia usually with two apical spurs (rarely reduced in size or only one).

<==Aphodiinae [Aphodiidae, Aphodiides]
    |  i. s.: Saprus Blackburn 1904 [Aegialiinae] CW92
    |           `--*S. griffithi Blackburn 1904 CW92
    |--Odochilus [Odochilini] CW92
    |--Rhyparus Westwood 1845 [=Ryparus; Rhyparini] CW92
    |    |--*R. desjardinsii Westwood 1845 [=Ryparus desjardinsii] CW92
    |    `--R. australiae Lea 1923 CW92
    |--Eupariini CW92
    |    |--Ataenius CW92
    |    |--Saprosites CW92
    |    |--Dialytes Harold 1869 CW92
    |    |    |--*D. striatulus (Say 1825) [=Trox striatulus] CW92
    |    |    `--D. granifer Schmidt 1909 CW92
    |    |--Parataenius Balthasar 1961 CW92
    |    |    |--*P. mirabilis Balthasar 1961 CW92
    |    |    `--P. granuliceps Petrovitz 1971 CW92
    |    `--Euparia Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 CW92
    |         |--*E. castanea Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 CW92
    |         |--E. olliffi Blackburn 1904 CW92
    |         `--E. squamosa Lea 1923 CW92
    |--Psammodiini CW92
    |    |--Phycocus Broun 1886 CW92
    |    |    `--*P. graniceps Broun 1886 CW92
    |    |--Tesarius Rakovič 1981 CW92
    |    |    `--*T. sulcipennis (Lea 1904) [=Phycocus sulcipennis] CW92
    |    |--Trichiorhyssemus Clouët 1901 CW92
    |    |    |--*T. riparius (Horn 1871) [=Rhyssemus riparius] CW92
    |    |    `--T. hirsutus Clouët 1901 CW92
    |    |--Diastictus Mulsant 1842 CW92
    |    |    |--*D. vulneratus (Sturm 1805) [=Aphodius vulneratus; incl. D. sabuleti Mulsant 1842] CW92
    |    |    |--D. obscurior (Blackburn 1904) [=Psammodius obscurior] CW92
    |    |    |--D. pachypus (Lea 1923) [=Psammodius pachypus] CW92
    |    |    `--D. tibialis (Fabricius 1798) [=Aphodius tibialis] CW92
    |    |--Leiopsammodius Rakovič 1981 CW92
    |    |    |--*L. laevicollis (Klug 1845) [=Psammodius laevicollis] CW92
    |    |    |--L. freyi (Petrovitz 1961) [=Psammobius freyi] CW92
    |    |    |--L. implicatus (Schmidt 1925) [=Psammobius implicatus] CW92
    |    |    |--L. litoralis (Lea 1923) [=Psammodius litoralis] CW92
    |    |    `--L. rufus (Rakovič 1981) [=Psammodius (Leiopsammodius) rufus] CW92
    |    |--Rhyssemus Mulsant 1842 CW92
    |    |    |--*R. germanus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Ptinus germanus] CW92
    |    |    |--R. algiricus Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |    |--R. australis Petrovitz 1963 CW92
    |    |    |--R. blackburni Clouët 1901 [incl. R. rhizophagus Lea 1923] CW92
    |    |    `--R. tarsalis Waterhouse 1876 [incl. R. insignicollis Lea 1923] CW92
    |    `--Aphodopsammobius Endrödi 1964 CW92
    |         |--*A. mirabilis (Endrödi 1964) [=Aphodius mirabilis] CW92
    |         |--A. australicus (Blackburn 1904) (see below for synonymy) CW92
    |         |--A. demarzi (Petrovitz 1964) [=Psammobius demarzi] CW92
    |         |--A. matthewsi Rakovič 1981 CW92
    |         |--A. rugicollis (Macleay 1888) [=Ammaecius rugicollis] CW92
    |         `--A. zietzi (Blackburn 1895) [=Ataenius zietzi] CW92
    `--Aphodiini CW92
         |--Proctophanes Harold 1861 [=Proctammodes Blackburn 1892] CW92
         |    |--*P. sculptus (Hope 1847) [=Aphodius sculptus, *Proctammodes sculptus] CW92
         |    |--P. metasternalis (Lea 1923) [=Proctammodes metasternalis] CW92
         |    `--P. minor (Blackburn 1897) [=Proctammodes minor] CW92
         |--Australammoecius Petrovitz 1958 CW92
         |    |--*A. demarzi Petrovitz 1958 CW92
         |    |--A. australis Petrovitz 1961 CW92
         |    |--A. bicolor Petrovitz 1961 CW92
         |    |--A. brunneus Petrovitz 1961 CW92
         |    |--A. flavipennis Petrovitz 1963 CW92
         |    `--A. granuliceps Petrovitz 1961 CW92
         `--Aphodius Illiger 1798 CW92
              |  i. s.: A. affinis Lucas 1847 E12
              |         A. ater C01
              |         A. bicrenulatus Lea 1923 CW92
              |         A. brunneus Klug 1845 G89
              |         A. cribricollis Lucas 1847 E12
              |         A. cynomysi Brown 1927 S69
              |         A. desertus G89
              |         A. erraticus C01
              |         A. fossor C01
              |         A. haemorrhoidalis C01
              |         A. hepaticus Roth 1851 G89
              |         A. heterodoxus Lea 1923 CW92
              |         A. hieroglyphicus G89
              |         A. hirtipennis Lucas 1847 E12
              |         A. holdereri GE05
              |         A. immundus C01
              |         A. integrifrons Lea 1923 CW92
              |         A. luridipennis Muls 1851 G89
              |         A. luridus [incl. A. luridus var. nigripes] C01
              |         A. melanostictus C01
              |         A. merdarius C01
              |         A. niger C01
              |         A. nitidulus C01
              |         A. parvoniger Lea 1923 CW92
              |         A. plagiatus [incl. A. plagiatus var. concolor] C01
              |         A. prodromus C01
              |         A. quadriguttatus C01
              |         A. solskyi C01
              |         A. sordescens C01
              |         A. sordidus [incl. A. sordidus var. quadripunctatus] C01
              |         A. subterraneus [incl. A. subterraneus var. fuscipennis] C01
              |         A. sulcatus C01
              |         A. suturalis Lucas 1847 E12
              |         A. thomomysi Brown 1928 S69
              |         A. tricolor Lea 1923 CW92
              |         A. tristis C01
              |         A. unicolor Lucas 1847 E12
              |--A. (Aphodius) RF04
              |    |--*A. (A.) fimetarius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Scarabaeus fimetarius] CW92
              |    `--A. (A.) conjugatus (Panzer 1785) RF04
              |--A. (Acrossidius Schmidt 1914) CW92
              |    |--A. (*A.) tasmaniae Hope 1847 (see below for synonymy) CW92
              |    |--A. (A.) pallidihirtus Balthasar 1941 CW92
              |    `--A. (A.) pseudotasmaniae Given 1950 CW92
              |--A. (Acrossoides Schmidt 1914) CH92
              |    `--A. (*A.) yorkensis Blackburn 1892 CW92
              |--A. (Australaphodius Balthasar 1942) CW92
              |    `--A. (*A.) melbournicus Balthasar 1942 CW92
              |--A. (Blackburneus Schmidt 1914) CW92
              |    |--A. (*B.) furcatus Schmidt 1909 CW92
              |    `--A. (B.) albertisi Harold 1877 CW92
              |--A. (Calamosternus Motschulsky 1860) CW92
              |    `--A. (*C.) granarius (Linnaeus 1767) [=Scarabaeus granarius; incl. A. adelaidae Hope 1847] CW92
              |--A. (Drepanocanthoides Schmidt 1914) CW92
              |    |--A. (D.) demarzi Petrovitz 1958 CW92
              |    |--A. (D.) neglectus Schmidt 1912 CW92
              |    `--A. (D.) walshi Horn 1870 CW92
              |--A. (Liothorax) wilsonae Maté & Angus 2005 F05
              |--A. (Melinopterus) C01
              |    |--A. (M.) mehelyi Csiki 1901 C01
              |    |--A. (M.) roschlapili Csiki 1901 C01
              |    `--A. (M.) semiluteus C01
              |--A. (Mendidius Harold 1868) [=Cnemargus Harold 1866 non Schönherr 1837] CW92
              |    |--A. (*M.) fimbriolatus Mannerheim 1849 [=*Cnemargus fimbriolatus] CW92
              |    |--A. (M.) burgaltaicus Csiki 1901 C01
              |    `--A. (M.) diffidens C01
              |--A. (Nialus Mulsant & Rey 1870) CW92
              |    |--A. (*N.) varians Duftschmid 1805 CW92
              |    |--A. (N.) lividus (Olivier 1789) (see below for synonymy) CW92
              |    `--A. (N.) pseudolividus Balthasar 1941 CW92
              |--A. (Parammoecius Seidlitz 1890) [incl. Pseudammoecius Schmidt 1914] CW92
              |    |--A. (*P.) gibbus Germar 1817 CW92
              |    `--A. (P.) castanicolor Motschulsky 1858 [incl. A. australasiae Boheman 1858 non Blanchard 1846] CW92
              |--A. (Phaeaphodius Reitter 1892) CW92
              |    |--A. (*P.) rectus Motschulsky 1866 CW92
              |    |--A. (P.) frenchi Blackburn 1892 [=A. ambiguus Boheman 1858 non Mulsant 1842] CW92
              |    `--A. (P.) zichyi Csiki 1901 C01
              |--A. (Podotenus) CW92
              |--A. (Teuchestes) analis CW92
              |--A. (Trichaphodius Schmidt 1914) CW92
              |    |--A. (*T.) humilis Roth 1851 CW92
              |    `--A. (T.) reichei Harold 1859 CW92
              `--A. (Volinus Mulsant & Rey 1870) CW92
                   |--A. (*V.) lineolatus Illiger 1803 CW92
                   `--A. (V.) candezei Harold 1868 CW92

Aphodius (*Aphodius) tasmaniae Hope 1847 [incl. A. andersoni Blackburn 1904, A. australasiae Blanchard 1846 (nom. rej.); incl. A. howitti Hope 1847, A. longitarsus Redtenbacher 1867] CW92

Aphodius (Nialus) lividus (Olivier 1789) [=Scarabaeus lividus; incl. A. cincticulus Hope 1847, A. spilopterus Germar 1848] CW92

Aphodopsammobius australicus (Blackburn 1904) [=Psammodius australicus; incl. Psammobius densepunctatus Petrovitz 1964] CW92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Aphodiinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 81–105. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[RF04] Rahola Fabra, P. 2004. Nuevos datos sobre Aphodius (Aphodius) conjugatus (Panzer, 1795) (Coleoptera, Aphodiidae) en España. Graellsia 60 (1): 125.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

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