Fifteen-scaled worm Harmothoe imbricata, copyright Peter J. Bryant.

Belongs within: Phyllodocida.

The Aphroditiformia, scale worms, are a group of marine worms characterised by the presence of dorsal cirri modified into elytra or scales on alternating segments.

    |  i. s.: Eulepethidae RF98
    |         Dryptoscolex matthiesae PTV14
    |         Faustoscolex gemmatus PTV14
    |         Histriocola delicatula PTV14
    |--+--Acoetidae RF98
    |  `--Aphroditidae SS07
    |       |--Hermione hystricella H04
    |       |--Sthenelaites Roverto 1903 H62
    |       |    `--*S. dasiaeformis (Massalongo 1855) [=Nereites dasiaeformis] H62
    |       |--Aphrodita Linnaeus 1758 H62
    |       |    |--*A. aculeata Linnaeus 1758 H62
    |       |    `--A. squamata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |       `--Protonympha Clarke 1903 H62
    |            |--*P. salicifolia Clarke 1903 H62
    |            `--P. transversa (Blake 1994) [=Foliaster transversus] CMG06
    `--+--Paralepidonotus ampulliferus (Grube 1878) RP07
       `--+--Sigalionidae SS07
          |    |--Sthenelanella uniformis Moore 1910 SS07
          |    |--Sthenelais boa (Johnston 1833) RP07
          |    |--Thalenessites Stauffer 1933 H62
          |    |    `--*T. lobatus Stauffer 1933 H62
          |    `--Sigalion Audouin & Milne-Edwards 1832 H62
          |         |--*S. mathilde Audouin & Milne-Edwards 1832 H62
          |         |--S. bandaensis (Mackie & Chambers 1990) RP07
          |         `--S. spinosus (Hartman 1939) SS07
          `--Polynoidae SS07
               |--Gattyana ciliata Moore 1902 SS07
               |--Gastrolepidia Schmarda 1861 P61
               |--Sheila bathypelagica Monro 1930 P61
               |--Gesiella Pettibone 1976 [Gesiellinae] H-S86
               |    `--G. jameensis (Hartmann-Schröder 1977) H-S86
               |--Iphionides Hartmann-Schröder 1977 [Iphioninae] H-S86
               |    `--I. glabra Hartmann-Schröder 1977 H-S86
               |--Pelagomacellicephala [Macellicephalinae] H-S86
               |    `--P. iliffei Pettibone 1985 H-S86
               |--Phyllosheila Pettibone 1961 P61
               |    `--*P. wigleyi Pettibone 1961 P61
               |--Phyllohartmania Pettibone 1961 P61
               |    `--*P. taylori Pettibone 1961 P61
               |--Hartmania Pettibone 1955 P61
               |    `--H. moorei Pettibone 1955 P61
               |--Lepidonotus SS07
               |    |--L. clava BBB-S95
               |    |--L. polychromus HS01
               |    |--L. squamatus (Linnaeus 1758) RP07
               |    `--L. sublevis Verrill 1873 SS07
               |--Malmgrenia castanea [=Harmothoe castanea, Laenilla castanea, Polynoe castanea] BK77
               `--Harmothoe RP07
                    |--H. imbricata (Linnaeus 1767) RP07
                    |--H. impar Johnston 1839 A70 [incl. Evarne pentactae Giard 1886 BK77]
                    |--H. ljungamni M62
                    `--H. lunulata (see below for synonymy) BK77

Harmothoe lunulata [=Malmgrenia lunulata, Polynoe lunulata; incl. H. picta St. Joseph 1888, H. marphysa McIntosh 1900, H. synaptae St. Joseph 1906] BK77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A70] Amoureux, L. 1970. Annélides Polychètes du Bassin de chasse d’Ostende: inventaire d’une petite collection. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (6): 23–24.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[CMG06] Conway Morris, S., & D. Grazhdankin. 2006. A post-script to the enigmatic Protonympha (Devonian; New York): is it an arm of the echinoderms? Palaeontology 49 (6): 1335–1338.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[P61] Pettibone, M. H. 1961. New species of polychaete worms from the Atlantic Ocean, with a revision of the Dorvilleidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 167–186.

[RF98] Rouse, G. W., & K. Fauchald. 1998. Recent views on the status, delineation and classification of the Annelida. American Zoologist 38: 953–964.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

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