Tooth of Cladodus mirabilis, copyright thair.

Belongs within: Acanthodii.
Contains: Symmoriida, Paraselachimorpha, Chimaeriformes, Euselachii.

The Chondrichthyes, commonly known as the cartilaginous fishes in reference to their distinction from other living jawed vertebrates in retaining a primarily cartilaginous skeleton, include the sharks, rays and chimaeras. Members of this clade are united by the presence of tessellate prismatic calcified cartilage (Davis et al. 2012).

Chondrichthyes [Chondrichthiomorphi, Cladoselachii, Elasmobranchii]
    |--Pucapampella DFC12
    `--+--+--Doliodus DFC12
       |  `--Tamiobatis DFC12
       `--+--+--+--Cladodoides wildungensis DFC12
          |  |  `--Orthacanthus texensis DFC12, L85
          |  `--Palaeoselachii [Cladoselachimorpha] B96
          |       |--Hybocladodus L85
          |       `--+--Antarctilamna L85
          |          `--+--Cladodus L85
          |             |    |--C. hassiacus W85
          |             |    |--C. mirabilis Agassiz 1837 L85
          |             |    |--C. occidentalis W85
          |             |    |--C. robustus Newberry & Worthn 1866 L85
          |             |    |--C. terrelli W85
          |             |    |--C. turritus Newberry & Worthen 1866 W85
          |             |    `--C. wildungensis W85
          |             `--+--Symmoriida DFC12
          |                `--+--Akmonistion DFC12
          |                   `--Cladoselache [Clasoselachida, Cladoselachidae, Cladoselachiformes] DFC12
          |                        |--C. clarki L85
          |                        |--C. fyleri W85
          |                        `--C. kepleri W85
          `--+--Tristychius arcuatus DFC12, Z90
             `--+--Holocephali [Subterbranchialia] B96
                |    |  i. s.: Cochliodontiformes B96
                |    |         Squalorajiformes B96
                |    |         Chondrenchelys DFC12 [Chondrenchelyiformes B96]
                |    |           `--C. problematica B-RB13
                |    |         Copodontiformes B96
                |    |         Psammodontiformes B96
                |    |         Eomanodon simmsi Ward & Duffin 1993 D01
                |    |         Ichthypriapus Hibbard 1942 FS10
                |    |           `--*I. hubbsi Hibbard 1942 FS10
                |    |         Halonodon FS10
                |    |         Myriacanthus granulatus FS10
                |    |         Eumylodus Leidy 1873 FS10
                |    |           `--E. laqueatus FS10
                |    |--Paraselachimorpha B96
                |    `--Chimaeriformes B96
                `--Euselachii B96

Chondrichthyes incertae sedis:
  Mongolepidida MG01
    |--Shiqianolepis [Shiqianolepididae] MG01
    |    `--S. hollandi MG01
    `--Mongolepididae MG01
         |--Mongolepis rozmanae MG01
         |--Teslepis jucunda  MG01
         |--Sodolepis lucens MG01
         `--Xinjiangichthys MG01
              |--X. pluridentatus MG01
              `--X. tarimensis MG01
  Protacrodus [Protacrodontidae] MG01
  Pilolepis margaritifera MG01
  Polymerolepis MG01
  Fadenia W85
  Hamiltonichthys B09
  Kannathalepis Märss & Gagnier 2001 [Kannathalepididae] MG01
    `--*K. milleri Märss & Gagnier 2001 [=Ekismodus tetragonum Märss & Gagnier 1999 (nom. prov.)] MG01
  Elegestolepis MG01
    |--E. conica MG01
    `--E. grossi MG01
  Paracestracion sarstedtensis DC02
  Serratolamna serrata PSB03
  Diademodus Harris 1950 [Coronodontida, Coronodontidae] W85
    `--*D. hydei Harris 1950 W85
  Acrodus W85
  Edestus W85
  Petrodus W85
  Listracanthus W85
  Holmesella Gunnell 1931 W85, H62
  Peripristis W85
  Calopodus W85
  Heptanchus W85
  Bathycheilodus St. John & Worthen 1875 W85
  Pristicladodus St. John & Worthen 1875 W85
  Diplodus W85
    |--D. duplicatus [=Thrinacodus duplicatus] W85
    |--D. gibbosus Agassiz 1837 L85
    `--D. incurvus [=Thrinacodus incurvus] W85
  Cratoselache pruvosti W85
  Amblypristis cheops Dames 1888 G92
  Geisacanthus St. John & Worthen 1875 N05
  Surcaudalus rostratus Leu 1989 RE01
  Debeerius DFC12
  Onychoselache DFC12
  *Styptobasis knightiana Cope 1891 L85
  Venustodus argutus (St John & Worthen 1875) L85

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[B09] Brazeau, M. D. 2009. The braincase and jaws of a Devonian ‘acanthodian’ and modern gnathostome origins. Nature 457: 305–308.

[DFC12] Davis, S. P., J. A. Finarelli & M. I. Coates. 2012. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature 486: 247–250.

[D01] Delsate, D. 2001. L’ichthyofaune du Pliensbachian (Jurassique inferieur) de Lorraine et des Ardennes (France): premiers resultats. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 40 (1–2): 47–69.

[DC02] Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2002. Les premieres raies (Chondrichthyes—Elasmobranchii) au Jurassique inferieur en Lorraine (Luxembourg, Belgique, France) et dans le Bassin de Paris. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 41 (3–4): 93–103.

[FS10] Friedman, M., K. Shimada, L. D. Martin, M. J. Everhart, J. Liston, A. Maltese & M. Triebold. 2010. 100-million-year dynasty of giant planktivorous bony fishes in the Mesozoic seas. Science 327: 990–993.

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L85] Lund, R. 1985. Stethacanthid elasmobranch remains from the Bear Gulch Limestone (Namurian E2b) of Montana USA. American Museum Novitates 2828: 1–24.

[MG01] Märss, T., & P.-Y. Gagnier. 2001. A new chondrichthyan from the Wenlock, Lower Silurian, of Baillie-Hamilton Island, the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (4): 693–701.

[N05] Newman, M. J. 2005. A systematic review of the placoderm genus Cosmacanthus and a description of acanthodian remains from the Upper Devonian of Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1111–1116.

[PSB03] Pereda Suberbiola, X., N. Bardet, S. Jouve, M. Iarochène, B. Bouya & M. Amaghzaz. 2003. A new azhdarchid pterosaur from the Late cretaceous phosphates of Morocco. In: Buffetaut, E., & J.-M. Mazin (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217: 79–90. The Geological Society: London.

[RE01] Ritchie, A., & G. D. Edgecombe. 2001. An odontogriphid from the Upper Permian of Australia. Palaeontology 44 (5): 861–874.

[W85] Williams, M. E. 1985. The “cladodont level” sharks of the Pennsylvanian Black Shales of central North America. Palaeontographica Abt. A 190: 83–158.

[Z90] Zangerl, R. 1990. Two new stethacanthid sharks (Stethacanthidae, Symmoriida) from the Pennsylvanian of Indiana, U. S. A. Palaeontographica Abteilung A: Paläozoologie—Stratigraphie 213: 115–141.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS