Rhabdinopora flabelliformis flabelliformis, copyright Institute of Geology at TUT.

Belongs within: Graptolithina.
Contains: Eugraptoloida.

The Graptoloida is the clade including the planktic graptolites, characterised by the possession of a nematophorous sicula with a free nema in the adult stage (Maletz et al. 2009).

<==Graptoloida (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Apiograptus K79
    |         Neolobograptus ZL97
    |           |--N. ariculatus ZL97
    |           `--N. nilssoni K-D04
    |         Calyxdendrum Kozłowski 1960 B70
    |           `--*C. graptoloides Kozłowski 1960 B70
    |         Psigraptus Jackson 1967 B70
    |           `--*P. arcticus Jackson 1967 B70
    |--Radiograptus Lapworth ex Bulman 1950 FC86, B70
    |    `--*R. rosieranus Bulman 1950 B70
    `--+--Staurograptus Emmons 1855 FC86, FEZ05 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*S. dichotomus Emmons 1855 (see below for synonymy) FEZ05
       |    |--S. apertus Ruedemann 1904 [=S. dichotomus var. apertus] FEZ05
       |    `--S. hyperboreus (Obut & Sobolevskaya 1962) (see below for synonymy) FEZ05
       `--+--Rhabdinopora Eichwald 1855 FC86, B70 (see below for synonymy)
          |    |--*R. flabelliformis (Eichwald 1840) B70 (see below for synonymy)
          |    |    |--R. f. flabelliformis FEZ05
          |    |    |--R. f. anglica FEZ05
          |    |    |--‘Dictyonema flabelliforme’ norvegicum B70
          |    |    |--R. f. parabola [incl. Staurograptus dichotomus priscus Lin 1986] FEZ05
          |    |    `--‘Dictyonema flabelliforme’ sociale (Salter 1858) [=*Graptopora socialis] B70
          |    |--*Ceramites’ hisingeri Liebmann in Forchhammer 1845 H62
          |    `--R. praeparabola FEZ05
          `--+--Anisograptinae FC86
             |    |--Triograptus Monsen 1925 FC86, B70
             |    |    |--*T. osloensis Monsen 1925 B70
             |    |    `--T. canadensis B70
             |    `--Anisograptus Ruedemann 1937 B70
             |         |--*A. matanensis Ruedemann 1937 B70
             |         |    |--A. m. matanensis FEZ05
             |         |    `--A. m. tetragraptoides FEZ05
             |         |--A. flexuosus B70
             |         `--A. richardsoni FEZ05
             `--Adelograptinae [Didymograpta, Didymograptina] FC86
                  |--Eugraptoloida FC86
                  `--+--Kiaerograptus Spjeldnaes 1963 FC86, B70
                     |    `--*K. kiaeri (Monsen 1925) [=Didymograptus kiaeri] B70
                     `--Adelograptus Bulman 1941 FC86, B70 [incl. Choristograptus Legrand 1963 B70]
                          |--*A. hunnebergensis (Moberg 1892) [=Bryograptus hunnebergensis] B70
                          |--A. clarki C68
                          |--A. lapworthi B70
                          |--*Choristograptus’ louhai Legrand 1963 B70
                          |--A. tenellus (Linnarsson 1871) MCM09
                          `--A. victoriae C68

Graptoloida [Anisograptidae, Graptodendroidina, Graptolitidae, Graptoloidea, Retioloidea, Rhabdinoporinae, Rhabdophora, Tetragrapti]

Rhabdinopora Eichwald 1855 FC86, B70 [=Dictyograptus Westergård 1909 non Hopkinson 1875 B70, Phyllograpta Angelin 1854 B70; incl. Ceramites Liebmann in Forchhammer 1845 H62, Graptopora Salter 1858 B70]

*Rhabdinopora flabelliformis (Eichwald 1840) B70 [=Gorgonia flabelliformis B70, *Dictyograptus flabelliformis B70, Dictyonema flabelliforme FC86, *Phyllograpta flabelliformis B70; incl. Dictyonema flabelliforme var. conferta K48]

Staurograptus Emmons 1855 FC86, FEZ05 [=Staurograpsus FEZ05; incl. Aletograptus Obut & Sobolevskaya 1962 FEZ05; Staurograptinae]

*Staurograptus dichotomus Emmons 1855 [incl. S. borealis Zhao 1983, S. dasycladus Zhao 1983, Radiograptus rosieranus flexibilis Fortey in Fortey et al. 1982, S. (Radiograptus) flexibilis, S. immaturus Wang, Liu & Zhou 1979, S. dichotomus immaturus, S. magnus Yu, Liu & Fang 1984, S. minimus Mu in Mu & Lin 1984, S. orientalis Mu in Mu & Lin 1984, S. dichotomus sinicus Mu in Mu & Lin 1984, S. taishanensis Wang, Liu & Zhou 1979, S. dichotomus taishanensis, S. tenuis tangpanensis Yu, Liu & Fang 1984, S. tenuis Jackson 1974] FEZ05

Staurograptus hyperboreus (Obut & Sobolevskaya 1962) [=*Aletograptus hyperboreus; incl. A. flexibilis Yu, Liu & Fang 1984, A. incertus Yu, Liu & Fang 1984, Triograptus rigidus Yu, Liu & Fang 1984] FEZ05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C68] Cooper, R. A. 1968. Lower and Middle Paleozoic fossil localities of north-west Nelson. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Geology 6 (7): 75–89.

[FEZ05] Feng, H., B.-D. Erdtmann & Y. Zhang. 2005. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Staurograptus Emmons from the base of the Ordovician. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1007–1019.

[FC86] Fortey, R. A., & R. A. Cooper. 1986. A phylogenetic classification of the graptoloids. Palaeontology 29: 631–654.

[H62] Häntzschel, W. 1962. Trace fossils and problematica. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W177–W245. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[K79] Kirk, N. H. 1979. Thoughts on coloniality in the graptolites. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 411–432. Academic Press: London.

[K-D04] Kozłowska-Dawidziuk, A. 2004. Evolution of retiolitid graptolites—a synopsis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (4): 505–518.

[K48] Kozłowski, R. 1948. Les graptolithes et quelques nouveaux groupes d’animaux du Tremadoc de la Pologne. Palaeontologica Polonica 3:i–xii, 1–235.

[MCM09] Maletz, J., J. Carlucci & C. E. Mitchell. 2009. Graptoloid cladistics, taxonomy and phylogeny. Bulletin of Geosciences 84 (1): 7–19.

[ZL97] Zhang Y. & A. C. Lenz. 1997. Uppermost Wenlock and Ludlow graptolites from southern Yunnan, China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 34: 1220–1238.

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